For control selection based on prediction a dynamic model of the human interaction behavior is required, which, however, is difficult to obtain from first principles. In order to cope with the high complexity of human behavior with unknown inputs and only sparsely available training data we propose to use machine-learning techniques for statistical modeling of the dynamics. In this new field of human interaction modeling — data-driven and machine-learned — control methods with guaranteed properties do not exist.
Key methodological innovation and breakthrough is the merger of probabilistic learning with model-based control concepts through model confidence and prediction uncertainty. The developed methods are a direct enabler for societally important applications such as machine-based physical rehabilitation, mobility and manipulation aids for elderly, and collaborative human-machine production systems.
Researcher PI Emanuel Milman. Summary "In recent years, the importance of superimposing the contribution of the measure to that of the metric, in determining the underlying space's generalized Ricci curvature, has been clarified in the works of Lott, Sturm, Villani and others, following the definition of Curvature-Dimension introduced by Bakry and Emery. We wish to systematically incorporate this important idea of considering the measure and metric in tandem, in the study of questions pertaining to isoperimetric and concentration properties of convex domains in high-dimensional Euclidean space, where a-priori there is only a trivial metric Euclidean and trivial measure Lebesgue.
The first step of enriching the class of uniform measures on convex domains to that of non-negatively curved ""log-concave"" measures in Euclidean space has been very successfully implemented in the last decades, leading to substantial progress in our understanding of volumetric properties of convex domains, mostly regarding concentration of linear functionals. However, the potential advantages of altering the Euclidean metric into a more general Riemannian one or exploiting related Riemannian structures have not been systematically explored.
Our main paradigm is that in order to progress in non-linear questions pertaining to concentration in Euclidean space, it is imperative to cast and study these problems in the more general Riemannian context. As witnessed by our own work over the last years, we expect that broadening the scope and incorporating tools from the Riemannian world will lead to significant progress in our understanding of the qualitative and quantitative structure of isoperimetric minimizers in the purely Euclidean setting.
Such progress would have dramatic impact on long-standing fundamental conjectures regarding concentration of measure on high-dimensional convex domains, as well as other closely related fields such as Probability Theory, Learning Theory, Random Matrix Theory and Algorithmic Geometry. Researcher PI Soeren Fournais. Summary This project in mathematical physics is concerned with the mathematical understanding of superconductivity and Bose-Einstein condensation. These physical phenomena are the subject of intense research activity both in the experimental and theoretical physics communities and in mathematics.
However, despite a lot of effort, many key questions lack a mathematically rigorous answer. The ambition of the present project is to improve this situation. I plan to analyze both the effective models and the underlying microscopic description of superconductivity and Bose-Einstein condensation. The effective models are systems of non-linear partial differential equations, and I will apply recently developed mathematical techniques for their analysis.
To mention an important specific problem in this part of the project, I am interested in the appearance of regular Abrikosov lattices of vortices. For superconductivity, which I will treat in the Ginzburg-Landau model, it is an experimental fact that this happens when an exterior magnetic field comes close to a critical value.
For rotating Bose-Einstein condensates, in the Gross-Pitaevskii model, a similar phenomenon occurs for sufficiently large rotations. However, as yet we are unable to derive these lattices directly from the relevant equations. Even more fundamental are the questions about the microscopic models.
The aim here is to prove that the desired condensation actually occurs under conditions relevant to experiment, i. The microscopic models are systems with a large number of variables and developing the mathematical techniques necessary for the analysis of such systems is an important question in current research in Mathematics.
Researcher PI Maryam Kamgarpour. Summary The increasing uptake of renewable energy sources and liberalization of electricity markets are significantly changing power system operations. To ensure stability of the grid, it is critical to develop provably safe feedback control algorithms that take into account uncertainties in the output of weather-based renewable generation and in participation of distributed producers and consumers in electricity markets.
The focus of this proposal is to develop the theory and algorithms for control of large-scale stochastic hybrid systems in order to guarantee safe and efficient grid operations. Stochastic hybrid systems are a powerful modeling framework. They capture uncertainties in the output of weather-based renewable generation as well as complex hybrid state interactions arising from discrete-valued network topologies with continuous-valued voltages and frequencies. The problems of stability and efficiency of the grid in the face of its changes will be formulated as safety and optimal control problems for stochastic hybrid systems.
Using recent advances in numerical optimization and statistics, provably safe and scalable numerical algorithms for control of this class of systems will be developed. These algorithms will be implemented and validated on realistic power grid simulation platforms and will take advantage of recent advances in sensing, control and communication technologies for the grid.
The end outcome of the project is better quantifying and controlling effects of increased uncertainties on the stability of the grid. The societal and economic implications of this study are tied with the value and price of a secure power grid. Addressing the questions formulated in this proposal will bring the EU closer to its ambitious renewable energy goals.
Researcher PI Rafal Klajn. Summary "Nature has long inspired chemists with its abilities to stabilize ephemeral chemical species, to perform chemical reactions with unprecedented rates and selectivities, and to synthesize complex molecules and fascinating inorganic nanostructures. What natural systems consistently exploit - which is yet fundamentally different from how chemists perform reactions - is their aspect of nanoscale confinement. The goal of the proposed research program is to integrate the worlds of organic and inorganic colloidal chemistry by means of manipulating chemical reactivities and synthesizing novel molecules and nanostructures inside synthetic confined environments created using novel, unconventional approaches based on inorganic, nanostructured building blocks.
The three types of confined spaces we propose are as follows: 1 nanopores within reversibly self-assembling colloidal crystals ""dynamic nanoflasks"" , 2 cavities of bowl-shaped metallic nanoparticles NPs , and 3 surfaces of spherical NPs. By taking advantage of these unique tools, we will attempt to develop, respectively, 1 a conceptually new method for catalyzing chemical reactions using light, 2 nanoscale inclusion chemistry a field based on host-guest ""complexes"" assembled form nanosized components and 3 to use NPs as platforms for the development of new organic reactions.
While these objectives are predominantly of a fundamental nature, they can easily evolve into a variety of practical applications. Specifically, we will pursue diverse goals such as the preparation of 1 a new family of inverse opals with potentially fascinating optical and mechanical properties , 2 artificial chaperones NPs assisting in protein folding , and 3 size- and shape-controlled polymeric vesicles.
Overall, it is believed that this marriage of organic and colloidal chemistry has the potential to change the fundamental way we perform chemical reactions, paving the way to the discovery of new phenomena and unique structures. Project acronym ConflictNET. While previous efforts to expand Internet access have focused on urban areas, current initiatives are leveraging new technologies from drones to satellites to provide affordable access to the worlds poorest, many of whom are in Africa and live in regions where the state is weak and there is protracted violent conflict.
This project focuses on a key puzzle that is often overlooked: How does increased access to social media affect the balance between peace-building efforts and attempts perpetuate violence in conflict-affected communities? With a focus on Africa and particularly on religious and political violence in Eastern Africa , this project will investigate the relationship between social media and conflict through three research questions at the macro, meso and micro level: how are social media altering the transnational dimensions of conflict and peacebuilding?
How are public authorities reacting to, and appropriating, social media to either encourage violence or promote peace? And in what ways are social media changing the way people experience, participate in, or respond to violent conflict? It will examine these questions in the context of dangerous speech online; the exit and entry of individuals away from, and into, conflict; the tactics and strategies actors adopt to shape the Internet; and how governance actors are leveraging social media in conflict-affected communities.
Project acronym ConFooBio. Project Resolving conflicts between food security and biodiversity conservation under uncertainty. Researcher PI Nils Bunnefeld. Summary Resolving conflicts between food security and biodiversity conservation under uncertainty Conflicts between food security and biodiversity conservation are increasing in scale and intensity and have been shown to be damaging for both biodiversity and human livelihoods.
Uncertainty, for example from climate change, decreases food security, puts further pressure on biodiversity and exacerbates conflicts. I propose to develop a novel model that predicts solutions to conflicts between biodiversity conservation and food security under uncertainty. ConFooBio will integrate game theory and social-ecological modelling to develop new theory to resolve conservation conflicts.
ConFooBio will implement a three-tiered approach 1 characterise and analyse 7 real-world conservation conflicts impacted by uncertainty; 2 develop new game theory that explicitly incorporates uncertainty; and 3 produce and test a flexible social-ecological model, applicable to any real-world conflict where stakeholders operate under conditions of extreme uncertainty.
The project has importance for society at large because ecosystems and their services are central to human wellbeing. Managing a specific natural resource often results in conflict between those stakeholders focussing on improving food security and those focussed on biodiversity conversation. ConFooBio will illuminate resolutions to such conflicts by showing how to achieve win-win scenarios that protect biodiversity and secure livelihoods.
In this project, I will develop a practical, transparent and flexible model for the sustainable future of natural resources that is also robust to uncertainty e. Project Hyperbolic Systems of Conservation Laws: singular limits, properties of solutions and control problems. Researcher PI Stefano Bianchini. Summary The research program concerns various theoretic aspects of hyperbolic conservation laws. In first place we plan to study the existence and uniqueness of solutions to systems of equations of mathematical physics with physic viscosity.
This is one of the main open problems within the theory of conservation laws in one space dimension, which cannot be tackled relying on the techniques developed in the case where the viscosity matrix is the identity. Furthermore, this represents a first step toward the analysis of more complex relaxation and kinetic models with a finite number of velocities as for Broadwell equation, or with a continuous distribution of velocities as for Boltzmann equation.
A second research topic concerns the study of conservation laws with large data. Even in this case the basic model is provided by fluidodynamic equations. A third research topic that we wish to pursue concerns the analysis of fine properties of solutions to conservation laws. Many of such properties depend on the existence of one or more entropies of the system. In particular, we have in mind to study the regularity and the concentration of the dissipativity measure for an entropic solution of a system of conservation laws.
Finally, we wish to continue the study of hyperbolic equations from the control theory point of view along two directions: i the analysis of controllability and asymptotic stabilizability properties; ii the study of optimal control problems related to hyperbolic systems. Theodosius was the last ruler to reign over a united empire. Yet despite the political division, during this period western clerics built a supra-regional ecclesiastical structure with substantial levels of hierarchy and cohesion.
Up to the s historians have largely conceived of these ecclesiastical institutions as organizations with widely accepted power. More recent scholarship, however, has revealed the social origin and fallibility of clerical authority. With innovative methods of social inquiry we can offer new answers to these historiographical questions. Our project CONNEC will use social network analysis and new institutional theory to trace four processes: how clerical networks adapted to the new secular contexts, how these interactions shaped the development of ecclesiastical law, how clerics constructed and disseminated discourses that supported different structures of the church, and how networks fostered compliance and a sense of accountability among clerics.
By bringing together digital tools with qualitative textual analysis, CONNEC will provide a more nuanced understanding of a key process of world history. Project Connexin and pannexin channels as drug targets and biomarkers in acute and chronic liver disease. Summary The CONNECT project intends to contribute to the substantiation of the controversial scientific concept stating that hemichannels consisting of connexin32 and connexin43 as well as pannexin1 channels act as pathological pores.
This hypothesis will be verified in the specific context of cell death and inflammation, both which are key features of acute liver failure and liver fibrosis. As such, the project is organised in 3 workpackages. In the first workpackage, connexin32, connexin43 and pannexin1 expression and activity will be studied in human and animal diseased liver tissue. The second workpackage is targeted towards the in vitro characterisation of recently generated inhibitors of hemichannels consisting of connexin32 and connexin43 as well as pannexin1 channels, namely Gap24, Gap19 and 10Panx1, respectively.
Particular attention will be paid to their target selectivity and potential to reduce cell death and inflammation in liver-based in vitro models. The goal of the third workpackage is to test the in vivo extrapolation of the established in vitro findings. To this end, Gap24, Gap19 and 10Panx1 will be administered to animal models of acute liver failure or liver fibrosis, followed by evaluation of their outcome on cell death, inflammation and clinically relevant read-outs.
The CONNECT project is anticipated to significantly impact the connexin and pannexin research area, as it foresees the development and optimisation of new tools and technology to study connexin hemichannels and pannexin channels. However, given the generic nature of the driving concept, the outcome of the CONNECT project is equally of clinical relevance for a plethora of other pathologies.
Summary Participation — defined in this project as the social practice of engaging in personal and social change — links private and public life, biography and history, and forms a mechanism for social action. By sampling children from a diverse cross-section of each city the project will collect and follow a total of children over a five-year period. Project Physiologically relevant microfluidic neuro-engineering. Summary Developing minimalistic biological neural networks and observing their functional activity is crucial to decipher the information processing in the brain.
This project aims to address two major challenges: to design and fabricate in vitro biological neural networks that are organized in physiological relevant ways and to provide a label-free monitoring platform capable of observing neural activity both at the neuron resolution and at large fields of view. To do so, the project will develop a unique microfluidic compartmentalized chips where populations of primary neurons will be seeded in deposition chambers with physiological relevant number and densities. Chambers will be connected by microgrooves in which neurites only can grow and whose dimensions will be tuned according to the connectivity pattern to reproduce.
To observe the activity of such complex neural networks, we will develop a disruptive observation technique that will transduce the electrical activity of spiking neurons into optical differences observed on a lens-free platform, without calcium labelling and constantly in-incubo. By combining neuro-engineering patterning and the lens-free platform, we will compare individual spiking to global oscillators in basic neural networks under localized external stimulations. Such results will provide experimental insight into computational neuroscience current approaches.
Finally, we will design an in vitro network that will reproduce a neural loop implied in major neurodegenerative diseases with physiological relevant neural types, densities and connectivities. This circuitry will be manipulated in order to model Huntington and Parkinson diseases on the chip and assess the impact of known drugs on the functional activity of the entire network. This project will engineer microfluidics chips with physiological relevant neural network and a lensfree activity monitoring platform to answer fundamental and clinically relevant issues in neuroscience.
Project Controlled quantum effects and spin technology - from non-equilibrium physics to functional magnetics. Researcher PI Henrik Ronnow. Summary The technology of the 20th century was dominated by a single material class: The semiconductors, whose properties can be tuned between those of metals and insulators all of which describable by single-electron effects. In contrast, quantum magnets and strongly correlated electron systems offer a full palette of quantum mechanical many-electron states.
A new experimental approach, building on established powerful laboratory and neutron scattering techniques combined with dynamical control-perturbations, will be developed to study correlated quantum effects in magnetic materials. The immediate goal is to open a new field of non-equilibrium and time dependent studies in solid state physics. The long-term vision is that the approach might nurture the materials of the 21st century. Project Clinical ultrasound platform for the quantitative and longitudinal imaging of theranostics and cellular therapy. Researcher PI Mangala Srinivas.
Summary The success of modern medical treatments such as cellular therapy and targeted treatments requires appropriate tools for in vivo monitoring. However, these imaging techniques are extremely expensive and can involve radiation, both of which hinder their longitudinal and repetitive use. Ultrasound has so far been unsuitable due to the absence of a label to differentiate regions of interest from tissue background, the main problem being that current ultrasound contrast agents CAs have active lifetimes in the order of minutes.
This mechanism of contrast generation appears completely novel: The polymeric particles are under nm in diameter and must contain a soluble metal M. Srinivas et al. Based on the current state of the art, these particles are too small and do not contain the requisite gaseous component for ultrasound contrast. CoNQUeST particles are applicable to longitudinal and repeated imaging, as is necessary for cell tracking, due to their stability. Furthermore, these particles can be chemically bound to targeting agents, dyes and drugs, and are suitable for multimodal imaging, including MRI both 1H and 19F , fluorescence and SPECT.
I propose the application of the CoNQUeST agents to a clinical trial for tracking dendritic cell therapy in melanoma patients, longitudinal theranostic imaging in preclinical models and thorough characterisation of this novel mechanism of ultrasound contrast generation. Project Towards a neural and cognitive architecture of consciousness.
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Summary For decades the cognitive neuroscience community has expended significant effort identifying system-level neural correlates of human consciousness, broad neural signatures that distinguish conscious from unconscious processes at the level of whole brain regions. Meanwhile, within the field of neurobiology, rapid progress has been made in understanding the neurotransmitter systems underlying basic sensory processes e. This research has, however, been performed in relative isolation from studies of human consciousness, and clear opportunities to link the two levels of description remain largely unexplored.
Here I will establish this link by combining state-of-the-art neuroimaging techniques with pharmacological interventions. First, I will validate and refine existing theories of consciousness by isolating system-level neural correlates of consciousness that are invariant across experimental tasks and manipulations. Second, I will test the hypothesis that NMDA receptors play a crucial role in recurrent processing, the dynamic information exchange between brain regions, thought to give rise to consciousness.
I will also test the hypothesis that rapid fluctuations in spontaneous network activity modulating arousal levels , which are controlled by noradrenaline and acetylcholine neuromodulatory systems, determine the likelihood of sensory evoked recurrent processing, and hence consciousness, to occur. Third, I will test the hypothesis that recurrent processing provides the possibility for prolonged and flexible information processing, which could represent a potential function of consciousness. In summary, the proposed research has the potential to gain fundamental insights in the neural causes, rather than simply correlates, of human consciousness, as has been the focus of most previous work.
In so doing, the work will advance scientific understanding of the long-debated functional significance of consciousness for human cognition and behavior. Researcher PI Duncan Odom. Summary Vertebrates contain hundreds of different cell types which maintain phenotypic identity by a combination of epigenetic programming and genomic regulation. Systems biology approaches are now used in a number of laboratories to determine how transcription factors and chromatin marks pattern the human genome. Despite high conservation of the cellular and molecular function of many mammalian transcription factors, our recent experiments in matched mouse and human tissues indicates that most transcription factor binding events to DNA are very poorly conserved.
A hypothesis that could account for this apparent divergence is that the larger regional pattern of transcription factor binding may be conserved. To test this, 1 we are characterizing the global transcriptional profile, chromatin state, and complete genomic occupancy of a set of tissue-specific transcription factors in hepatocytes of strategically chosen mammals; 2 to further identify the precise mechanistic contribution of cis and trans effects, we are comparing transcription factor binding at homologous regions of human and mouse DNA in a mouse line that carries human chromosome Together, these projects will provide insight into the general principles of how transcriptional networks are evolutionarily conserved to regulate cell fate specification and function using a clinically important cell type as a model.
Summary The origins of imperialism, a socio-military system in which hegemony is achieved over alien territories, are poorly investigated. This applies in particular to how imperial strategies affected local communities. This project will investigate the hegemonic practices of one of the earliest stable empires: that of the Assyrians, by focussing on the Late Bronze Age fortified estate at Tell Sabi Abyad, ca. The Assyrians created a network of strongholds in conquered territories to consolidate their hegemony.
The fortified estate at Tell Sabi Abyad is the only extensively investigated of these Assyrian settlements. This settlement is both small and well preserved and has been completely excavated. The complete plan facilitates a study of the spatial properties of this fortress and how it structured interactions.
Further, the estate contained a wealth of in situ finds, which allow for a reconstruction of activity patterns in the settlement. Finally, over cuneiform tablets were found which shed light on the local social and economic situation and the broader imperial context. This project will provide a bottom up perspective on the Assyrian Empire.
Elements of the Tell Sabi Abyad estate that will be investigated include: spatial characteristics; activity areas; the agricultural economy; and the surrounding landscape. Further, data from the Middle Assyrian Empire at large will be reconsidered, in order to achieve a better understanding of how this empire was constituted. This project is innovative because: it investigates a spatial continuum ranging from room to empire; brings together types of data usually investigated in isolation, such as texts and artifacts; will involve the use of novel techniques; and will investigate the short term normally beyond the scope of archaeology.
The research will contribute to the cross-cultural issue of how hegemonic control is achieved in alien territories, and add to our understanding of early empires. Summary The developments of Statistical Mechanics and Quantum Field Theory are among the major achievements of the 20th century's science. During the second half of the century, these two subjects started to converge. In two dimensions, this resulted in a most remarkable chapter of mathematical physics: Conformal Field Theory CFT reveals deep structures allowing for extremely precise investigations, making such theories powerful building blocks of many subjects of mathematics and physics.
Unfortunately, this convergence has remained non-rigorous, leaving most of the spectacular field-theoretic applications to Statistical Mechanics conjectural. About 15 years ago, several mathematical breakthroughs shed new light on this picture. The development of SLE curves and discrete complex analysis has enabled one to connect various statistical mechanics models with conformally symmetric processes. Recently, major progress was made on a key statistical mechanics model, the Ising model: the connection with SLE was established, and many formulae predicted by CFT were proven. This is the goal of this proposal, which is organized in three objectives: I Build a deep correspondence between the Ising model and CFT: reveal clear links between the objects and structures arising in the Ising and CFT frameworks.
II Gather the insights of I to study new connections to CFT, particularly for minimal models, current algebras and parafermions. It will help to close the gap between physical derivations and mathematical theorems. By linking the deep structures of CFT to concrete models that are applicable in many subjects, it will be potentially useful to theoretical and applied scientists. Researcher PI Anneli Albi. Summary At a time when the discourse on constitutionalism has come to focus on the constitutionalisation processes at the European and global level, this project will turn the spotlight on national constitutions.
It embarks on an analysis and rethinking of the role and future of national constitutions in the context where decision-making has increasingly shifted to transnational level. The project will have three objectives. The first objective is concerned with the role of constitutions internally within the state: the project assesses how credible the content of constitutions remains given the realities of European integration. To this end, it will undertake a comprehensive, comparative and issue-based analysis of EU-related amendments in national constitutions.
The second objective concerns the role of constitutions externally with regard to European integration. While national constitutions have increasingly been regarded as a manifestation of sovereignty, and therefore representing values that are often viewed as parochial, the project will turn the focus on other values contained in the constitutions, such as protection of rights and the rule of law.
The third objective applies experiences from the EU context to the new research area of global governance. The project aims to assess whether the constitutional provisions on international treaties suffice to reflect the sheer extent to which decision-making has shifted to international institutions and global regulatory networks.
It will also explore how constitutions could respond to the problems increasingly highlighted in the context of global governance in relation to legitimacy, democratic control, accountability and the rule of law. Project Ecophysiological and biophysical constraints on domestication in crop plants. Summary A fundamental question in biology is how constraints drive phenotypic changes and the diversification of life.
We know little about the role of these constraints on crop domestication, nor how artificial selection can escape them. The project is based on three objectives: 1. This project will be investigated within and across crop species thanks to a core panel of 12 studied species maize, sunflower, Japanese rice, sorghum, durum wheat, bread wheat, alfalfa, orchardgrass, silvergrass, pea, colza, vine for which data and collections ca. Additional species will be used for specific tasks: i a panel of 30 species for a comparative analysis of crop species and their wild progenitors; ii worldwide accessions of Arabidopsis thaliana for a genome-wide association study of resource-use traits.
Collectively, we will use a multiple-tool approach by using: field measurement, high-throughput phenotyping, common-garden experiment, comparative analysis using databases, modelling, genomics. The ground-breaking nature of the project holds in the nature of the questions asked and in the unique opportunity to transfer knowledge from ecology and evolutionary biology to crop species.
Project Emergence and decline of constructive memory — Life-span changes in a common brain network for imagination and episodic memory. Summary The creation of personal, episodic memory from a previous experience is a remarkably complex process, which substantially differs from the processes leading to non-personal knowledge and memory about the world, so-called semantic memory.
The act of remembering an episodic event is as much an act of creation as an act of reproduction. Modality-specific memory items are assembled through a re-construction process that allows us to re-experience the episode in rich details. Recent research has shown that recall of episodes and imagination of the future depends on a common core brain network.
Early damage to this network will dramatically affect the development of personal memories, effectively preventing the creation of a vivid personal past, while leaving general cognitive development relatively intact. Still, no attempts have been made to study how development and subsequent aging of constructive memory, the arguably most relevant form of memory for daily life-function, is determined by structural and functional properties of the brain.
I propose to study how characteristics of the brain determine the development of the ability to form episodic memories in childhood, and how the same factors contribute to the decline in episodic memory function experienced by most healthy elderly. The aim of the current proposal is to understand how maturation and aging of the brain networks for reconstructive memory impacts the ability to form and re-experience ones past. To address this aim, we will study children years , adolescents years , young adults years and elderly years , participants in each group, with repeated cognitive testing and brain scanning with magnetic resonance imaging MRI.
The children will be examined annually, yielding four examinations, while the other participants will be examined bi-annually, yielding to examinations within the project period. Project Effects of stakeholder consultations on inputs, processes and outcomes of executive policymaking. Summary Consultations with stakeholders citizens and interest organizations are frequently used by executive bureaucracies to design policies and formulate legislation.
Author of works on medicine, pharmacology and philosophy. His contribution to medicine was so significant that it can be compared to that of Ibn Sina, his share, greatly influenced the development of science in general and medicine in particular. In his method, he took patient's history and clinical observation in medical practice. He wrote around 50 books only in medicine and some of his famous books on medicine are: Al-Hawi, which contained various medical subjects and all important information that was available from Greek and Arab sources including his own remarks based on his experiences and views; "Al-Judrai Wal Hassba" was the first book to draw clear comparisons between smallpox and chicken-pox.
He also prepared alcohol by fermenting sweet products. Such a condition may be the result of meditation, mystical prayer, ritualistic ceremonies, orgiastic dancing, sleep deprivation, starvation, shock, hypnosis, mental illness, mind-altering drugs and of course dreaming. The new environmental paradigm places intrinsic value in the preservation of nature, is eco-centric, based on soft power and soft technology, treats economics only as a means to an end, recognizes limits to growth, condones collaborative, leisurely and sufficiency lifestyles, believes in grassroots organization, decentralization, people power and nonviolent direct action, is non-consumeristic and non-nuclear, promotes sustainable development and ethical value systems, and encourages compassion and tolerance towards other species, human groups, and future generations.
What is unconventional in some parts of the world may be very conventional in others. For example Ayurvedic and Chinese medicine are unconventional in the West, but quite conventional in the East.
Although Western physicians have had a very negative attitude in the past, to what is regarded as unconventional, there are now increasingly many attempts at scientific clinical trials of alternative medicine. The idea of "integrative medicine", seeking to integrate the best from various methods, may replace old ideas of what is conventional and what isn't.
Concepts in some alternative therapies, like the energy which is called ki in Japanese, and chi in Chinese, are a challenge to philosophies of science which, since Newton and Hume, have been trying to rid science of mysterious concepts of energy. Sometimes, when new developments seem to contradict science, we reject the new developments. Sometimes, we revise orthodox science. The astronomical observations made after the invention of the telescope were difficult, if not impossible, to reconcile with Ptolemaic astronomy. Rather than rejecting the new observations, Copernicus, Kepler and Galileo rejected Ptolemaic astronomy.
It will be interesting to see whether the future will bring a reaffirmation of orthodox science, and a rejection of unorthodox medicine, or the exact opposite. Or perhaps there will be a new synthesis that we have not yet thought of. Disinterested altruism is a disadvantage from an evolutionary viewpoint.
A gene can be altruistic if promotes the welfare of another entity. There are however interested forms of altruism, which may favour survival of the individual or the species, by being cooperative. Ambiguity and circumlocution are tools used by politicians to avoid sensitive lines of questioning. Ambiguity can be beneficial to the spread of some memes, for example the term "sustainable development" has broad appeal to both environmentalists and developers precisely because of its ambiguity.
The ambiguities of language may provide the subtleties of literature, but language precision is centrally important to bioethical policy and scientific discourse where ambiguity can obscure important assumptions or methodological details. In modern biological anthropology and genetics, this term has been adopted to designate a group of present-day native American peoples from North-, Central- and South America in all the studies of the biological variation that attempt to characterize the DNA polymorphisms of different loci in these and other human groups.
Although the linguistic classification of the Native American languages remains controversial, the term is now coined for the peoples inhabiting this part of the planet. The sequence of amino acids in a protein is determined by the genetic code. There are actually 21 in number, with the 21 st , selenocysteine, being seldom used.
They are the building blocks to form proteins, e. Usually only certain sections of the memory are affected, for example anterograde amnesia is the inability to form new memories since the onset of amnesia, whilst still allowing the retention of language and other basic skills. Performed for prenatal screening. Usually, amniocentesis is accompanied by genetic counselling; in the case the test results indicate a genetic abnormality in the foetus, parents are given the choice of either interrupting or pursuing the pregnancy.
Amniocentesis for Down Syndrome detection is mandatory in many countries for women over 35 years, due to the increased risk from this age on, but in many countries, amniocentesis, and thus, prenatal diagnosis, is not even permitted, on grounds of the illegality of abortion. Nevertheless, bioethicists and lawyers have pointed that the right to know has to be respected above any other consideration. In the case of a positive result for Down syndrome or any other genetic condition, it may help parents and other family members in preparing themselves psychologically to accept the baby, whereas, in the case of a negative result, throwing out the presence of such a problem, the parents are relieved of an unnecessary anxiety during pregnancy GK.
These may include social life, for example non-maintenance of friendships, lost interest in outdoor recreation or reduced sex drive; or more commonly in working life, for example a decline in productivity or performance, dropping out of student courses or regular non-attendance at work. Amotivational Syndrome may be an indication of depression, anxiety, persistent drug use or other conditions with symptoms of dullness and lethargy. Developed in the s, amphetamines and their relatives have been used to treat depression, obesity, narcolepsy and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.
Amphetamines are subject to abuse because of their stimulant properties, which include wakefulness, excitement and increased energy levels, but they are also attractive because of their ability to generate an addictive euphoria when they are ingested, injected or snorted. Abuse can lead to compulsive behavior, dependence, hostility, paranoia, hallucinations, physical deterioration - particularly cardio-vascular - and suicidal tendencies. Regular use may also lead to serious amphetamine-induced psychosis.
Amphetamines have many street names such as "speed", "black beauties", "lid poppers", "pep pills" but also "base" which is much stronger, and "crystal meth" or "ice" which is a smokable crystalline derivative of methylamphetamine. As for most toxic addictive drugs, it takes strong motivation to quit, however, users should at all times take care to prevent conception since amphetamine abuse adversely affects sperm quality and in utero fetal development risking postnatal wellbeing. The anabolic component promotes muscle growth and the androgenic component acts upon masculine traits in the body.
They have an important function in general medical applications as; for example, in replacement therapy for men with low testosterone levels, but are also commonly illegally used as performance-enhancing drugs in dosage regimes 10 to times the accepted therapeutic range. Performance enhancement is suitable for weight lifting, body building, power lifting and field events where they permit athletes to train longer and harder with improved competitiveness due to heightened aggression. Uncontrolled steroid use is damaging to health and can cause liver dysfunction and increased risk of cardiovascular disease and cancer.
Unscrupulous scientists, malpractising doctors or misguided administrators can create a rationale that international success, especially in the Olympic Games, implies the use of performance-enhancing drugs where disputes surrounding the legality of some winning performances catching "Fool's gold". They are widely distributed in nature with just a few being infectious occurring, typically, in deep puncture wounds that exclude air or in tissue that has diminished oxygen-reducing potential.
This form of strenuous exercise should be avoided at all costs during pregnancy because strenuous physical activity results in many physiological changes that can affect the wellbeing of the fetus. Some of these changes are obvious; for example, severe exercise stimulates increased production of noradrenaline causing immediate contractions of the uterus, which may negatively affect the uteroplacental circulation and the fetus. The most serious argument against endurance sport and also prolonged immersion in saunas during pregnancy concerns the consequences of maternal hyperthermia or overheating.
Animal studies have shown a consistent relationship between birth defects and exposure to high temperatures, although the data on human pregnancy and elevated temperature are not as consistent. Hyperthermia has at least four deleterious effects a teratogenic effects of core temperatures of greater than 40 degrees C in early pregnancy have been conclusively demonstrated in animal studies b effects of elevated temperature on oxygen hemoglobin-binding curves makes oxygen uptake by the fetal blood more difficult c effects of increased maternal oxygen consumption due to temperature-induced elevated metabolic rate reduces oxygen availability for fetal consumption d increased maternal blood flow to the skin for thermoregulation decreases uterine irrigation affecting placental transport of oxygen and nutrients.
Likeness in appearance or function but not in evolutionary origin; for example, the insect eye and the mammalian eye - hence analogous. Numerical information as in analog computer that is represented in the form of a quantity usually a voltage that varies in equal manner as the data but is convenient to manipulate mathematically. In mathematics the identification of a general agreement or similarity between two problems or methods.
For instance, analogy is used to indicate the results of one problem from the known results of the other. In biology the identification of a resemblance of form or function between organs essentially different; that is, not of common evolutionary origin. For instance, the wings of birds are analogous to the wings of insects. The branch of mathematics that uses the concept of limits - resolution to simple elements.
A significance test, it determines whether there is a significant difference between the means of a number of treatment groups. As a common technique for comparison of two or more populations, care should be taken to coordinate experimental design with its requirements. Analysis of Covariance combines regression techniques with analysis of variance. Originally it was an extremely demanding discipline of analysing scientific and mathematical language in terms of mathematical logic. It was thought that all knowledge consists of sense experience expressed in logical form, except for mathematics which is entirely formal.
Mathematics, therefore, was thought of as a branch of logic, and all mathematical truths were to be proved from axioms of logic. Axioms of logic are obviously true contentless statements like: "Either it is or it isn't". In , however, this was shown to be a hopeless dream when Kurt Godel published a paper proving that in any logical system which is strong enough to formulate simple arithmetic, there will be true statements which cannot be proven from the axioms of the system.
While analytic philosophy was highly mathematical at Cambridge, Oxford philosophers developed the "ordinary language" school of philosophy, analysing concepts by observation of how we use words in ordinary speech. Gilbert Ryle believed, for example, that neurobiology is irrelevant to the study of the mind: we only need analyse our uses of mental words, like "think", "feel", "imagine", etc, in ordinary language. Ethics became no longer an enquiry into what is right and what is wrong but an enquiry into how we use words like "right and wrong".
An offspring of this approach is today's "descriptive bioethics". But while Oxford ordinary language philosophy was highly parochial, restricting one's investigation to how English-speaking people use words, descriptive bioethics uses international surveys to try to bridge cultural relativism. But it also has positive meanings having to do with the attempt to live without government, coercion or any uniformity of practice imposed from above. In politics, the doctrine is difficult to carry out in practice when defense requires some form of governmental organization.
In individual life, however, it can be more practical and some have succeeded in living quite well while ignoring government and other coercive institutions. A bioethical attitude inspired by anarchism is one's taking care of one's own health -- carefully observing the effects of foods and lifestyles on one's health, for example -- rather than living and eating thoughtlessly and then running to physicians to get one out of trouble. In clinical ethics, an attitude inspired by anarchism would be the rejection of national or international -- or even hospital-wide -- laws or guidelines for DNR, abortion, candidacy for IVF, etc, leaving the decisions up to ward staff meetings, including doctors, nurses and social workers, together of course with patient and family.
Others think that we are getting less wise and less ethical.
Many cultures have traditions of ancient wisdom, which is thought of as better than what we have today. Much of these traditions are based on the idea that prophesy belonged only to the ancients, because God, or the gods, only spoke to people in the old days. But there is no emphasis that this is true. It is just as likely that there be prophesy in every generation, or perhaps prophetic periods of history, followed by empty ones, which are followed by new prophesy.
In contemporary popular culture, an android is a robot difficult to distinguish from human flesh and form, perhaps a cybernetic combination of biochemical and electromechanical components. Anencephaly is the congenital absence of all or a major part of the brain.
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The number can be either higher presence of a trisomy , or lower presence of a monosomy. Although Judaism, Islam and Christianity are sometimes thought of as "monotheistic" religions, recognizing only one God, as opposed to "polytheistic" religions which have many, it is hard to find any ontological difference between the angels of the Hebrew Bible and the gods of Hinduism and Shinto. And the Bible describes the prophets as having had many interactions with angels.
Indeed there are traditions both in Shinto and in Hinduism, which interpret the many gods just like Judaism interprets angels, as many different appearances of one infinite god. The ancient Greeks and Romans, in contrast, do not seem to have had any concept of this unity. So the distinction between monotheistic and polytheistic religions seems to disappear, making possible more toleration of diverse religions and cults as representing many different ways of approaching one infinite God an attitude once argued for by Sri Aurobindo.
Many scientific people today doubt that angels exist. But many scientists believe in infinitely many non-physical entities, like "sets" and "numbers", whose existence has never been proved. Unlike sets and numbers, however, angels are thought of as active. But sub-atomic particles are also very active. And sub-atomic particles do not seem to be physical objects. Because if Heisenberg was right about indeterminacy then it follows that sub-atomic particles are not physical objects. For sub-atomic particles, according to Heisenberg, have no determinate but only statistical simultaneous location and motion.
But it is part of being physical that an object, at any given time, is at a specific place with a specific possibly zero motion. So we have an example of scientifically recognized non-physical objects. Socrates thought that a daemon was guiding his conscience.
The 17th Century French mathematician, physicist and philosopher, Descartes, contemplated the possibility that an evil angel was confusing his thoughts, and at about the same time Milton, in England, was writing "Paradise Lost" about "fallen angels" confusing people's ethics. The idea of angels influencing our ethics may have been a way of expressing the feeling that some of our life decisions bioethics are neither the result of education nor of rational investigation, but are things we are driven to do by causes which we do not understand.
ANGER: A negative emotional reaction associated with other bad feelings such as fear, disgust, shame, irritability, outrage, hostility and possibly even violence. Class Angiospermae is primarily differentiated from the Gymnospermae by its mode of reproduction, which is via the seed, the fruit and the flower with its pistil and stamen.
Angiosperms are divided into monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous plants. Animals can be divided into two groups, invertebrates animals without backbones and vertebrates animals with backbones. A type of ethics committee that focuses on the welfare of nonhuman animals. These may be conducted for a variety of purposes, including education, medical research, cosmetic testing, product safety. There are ethics committees in many countries to regulate the experimental nature, procedure and justified purposes.
Traditionally only human beings have been said to possess rights and even then the term 'rights' is understood by many philosophers as having only legal currency rather than moral authority. The notion of animal rights extends rights to certain non-humans, typically those with sentience, that is, the ability to feel pleasures and pains.
Those who advocate animal rights maintain that to allow humans rights but to deny them to all other species is speciesist - which is unacceptably discriminatory. There is an ethical and legal move to ascribe rights to Great Apes, and New Zealand has enacted laws which do.
The UK and European Union have not enacted laws which ascribe rights to the Great Apes but it has stopped the practice of using Great Apes in medical experiments, whatever the purported benefits. DM ANIMISM : The belief that the boundary between human and non-human is fluid so that the things of the world, both animate and inanimate, are spirited and able to communicate or be spiritually affiliated with humans see Dreaming.
In the modern context most of us now wish to see ourselves more as a participating member of Nature by giving due regard to the interdependence of all living systems and their further dependence on physical cycles. This acknowledgment is a significant intellectual advance as it undercuts the dualistic Greco-Roman view of human and natural systems being distinct from one another and links back to ancient understandings, as substantiated in Paleolithic cave paintings at Lascaux and Altamira and the Dreamtime depictions in Aboriginal rock art.
Our hunter ancestors knew Nature and its creatures many of whom were also their deities and respected their ethical right to exist alongside humankind. Annelida includes the classes Polychaeta marine worms , Oligochaeta earthworms and Hirudinea leeches. The concept is used in databases to protect the privacy of an individual sample by deleting the name, or identifiable information.
The removal of the identifying information can occur before entering the storage facility, or database, or after. In order to maintain an adequate energy balance, caloric needs for non-essential bodily functions; such as reproduction, are suppressed. The cause of thinness cannot be attributed to a primary endocrine hormonal disorder but the conditions of anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, emotional deprivation and calorie restriction can cause secondary endocrine abnormalities; such as delayed or absent puberty and infertility.
The condition is primarily a maturational problem in adolescents who, in the majority of cases, come from dysfunctional family homes. Anosmia may be temporary resulting, for example, from an obstructive respiratory infection or a blow on the head which may damage the olfactory receptors, or be permanent as a result of an irreversible damage to any part of the olfactory apparatus.
It is important to note that anosmia may be induced by injuring the olfactory receptors consequent to inhaling caustic substances such as lead, zinc sulfate, or concentrated matter such as cocaine. A landmass covered with ice, up to several km thick, because it is below freezing. The Antarctic Treaty is an international treaty against commercial exploitation of the mineral resources of this continent, intended to prevent pollution. Many nations have research bases on he continent, and some claim territory of Antarctica or islands off its coast.
ANTHRAX : One of the powerful bacterial biological weapons Bacillus anthracis occurs in many different strains as skin and inhalation strains, stable in spore condition, on contact it multiplies, its toxins cause hemorrhage leading to death. Anthropocentrism has been fostered by religious beliefs, placing human beings at the center of Creation, until scientific theories laid down by Darwin, Wallace and other naturalists in the mid-XIX th century have demonstrated that all living beings have common evolutionary roots and share mutual interdependence relationships, including our species.
Bioethics based on anthropocentric views overlooks the many issues in which other species are involved, centering its attention only on human beings.
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IP, GK. Study of human origin, social development and political organization, language, religion and art. Although animals may not display properties related to human intelligence, they may have variations on other human qualities such as emotions and feelings like sadness or pain. The anthroposphere has an input of materials and natural resources, and outputs a flow of waste materials. Synthetically produced to stop microbial infection. The resistance is acquired by the natural selection of resistant mutants in the presence of low concentrations of this antibiotic; however, the production of resistant strains of microorganisms can also be artificially created by means of genetic technology.
Antibiotic resistance is often an accidental result of medical overprescription. Another reason is the environmental release of large quantities of antibiotics which are added to the feed of factory-farmed animals. The accidental acceleration of antibiotic resistance generates an urgent race to create new drugs for combating human disease. Hospitals are one of the more common breeding grounds for antibiotic resistant bacteria. Antibiotics are often considered a generic treatment, and in many less developed countries are generally sold over the counter without a prescription or specialist advice.
Careless use of antibiotics may also have other side effects, such as the death of useful symbiotic bacteria in the gut, or damage to the structure and function of the ear. For example, antibiotics called aminoglycosides neuromycin, kanamycin, dihydrostreptomycin and vancomycin may irreversibly damage hearing by attacking the hair of the cochlea, while streptomycin and gentomycin may affect coordination and balance - if continued, nerve deafness may occur. A blood protein immunoglobin produced by white blood cells in response to the presence of a specific foreign substance antigen in the body, with which it fights or otherwise interacts.
Antibodies to sperm, if present, can impair fertility by causing agglutination of sperm. Antibodies against natural components of the body can also be generated, inducing an autoimmune response and subsequent destruction of the tissue i. Poor nations are those most in need of ethical, environmental, social and medical information and resources.
Anticopyright status may only be limited to poorer nations or non-profit organizations, in order to maintain economic incentives. Activist and subversive literature often bears an anticopyright label, and the internet has provided a free platform for many of the scientific and medical journals. There exist three major groups of antidepressant drugs the monoamine oxidase MAO inhibitors, the tricyclic antidepressants and the latest generation serotonin re-uptake inhibitors. The latter are favored for their selective action, since the tricyclics affect a broader range of neurotransmitter systems, and MAO inhibitors can potentially interact dangerously with certain food constituents.
Lithium is also used to treat bipolar disorder manic depression , and various herbal remedies e. Antidotes may react chemically to produce harmless compounds, act mechanically to prevent absorption, or perform physiologically to produce opposite effects to the poison. Usually the stomach should also be pumped to remove the poison and the occasionally toxic antidote , however not when this may cause damage in patients who have ingested caustic agents.
The anti-globalization movement dramatically increased its presence in the media and public consciousness with the Seattle protest gathering during the World Trade Organization conference, marred by rioting and security clashes. Antihistamines are used to treat allergic rhinitis hay-fever , allergic rashes, asthma, and the common cold. Side effects may include sleepiness, dizziness and dry mouth. Antioxidants are deliberately added to prepacked foods and drugs in order to delay degradation by oxidation and increase their shelf-lives.
The consumer is often led to believe that vitamin supplements having antioxidant properties should be taken daily, however, the rationale for daily use of such products has not been established. In general, healthy adult men and non-pregnant women consuming a normal varied diet do not need vitamin supplements.
Products designed for sale in the developed world can be beyond the economic reach of people in less developed nations, for example drug patents prevent equitable availability to those living with HIV or dying of other diseases. The free or economically-scaled release of such bioethical products should be encouraged and subsidised. They usually normalize the action of dopamine and possibly other neurotransmitters. Although antipsychotics can save people from the need for incarceration, they may have serious side effects such as dyskinesia tremors , ataxia staggering , seizures and lethargy.
It is perhaps well to bear in mind that one-third to one-half of psychotic patients improve symptomatically - or show constructive personality change - without prescribed medication. When assessing drug effectiveness care must be taken to include adequate control groups - either untreated or treated by another type of therapy in order to avoid possible long-term risk. It therefore forms a duplex with the mRNA preventing the mRNA being used in protein synthesis, thus indirectly controlling gene expression.
Thus sociology is explained in terms of psychology, which is explained in terms of physiology, which is explained in terms of biology, which is explained in terms of chemistry, which is explained in terms of physics, which is explained in terms of mathematics.
Thus all history, international relations, human relations and our mental and emotional lives are really matters of particle physics formulated mathematically. Genetic Reductionism is just a special case of reductionism explaining human life in terms of molecular genetics. Anti-Reductionism has been formulated in terms of a number of different arguments: I "Not even all clinical phenotypes can be attributed to single genes, so obviously not all personality types or patterns of human action can be attributed to single genes": to which the answer is that genetic reductionism need not be single-gene reductionism, but can explain each phenotype in terms of multiple genes.
II "Human characterists, including clinical disease, are rarely explainable in terms of genetics alone. There are also environmental -- including nutritional and educational -- co-factors.
Covalent Counsel: In Pursuit of the Ultimate Intimate Spiritual Experience
III "Reductionism leads to the denial of free will": to which the answer is that this begs the question. Maybe free will is just an illusion anyway. IV "Reductionism has never been proved. Has anyone ever shown how we can really explain international relations as events on the subatomic level? Let's see how science develops, in the meantime leaving Reductionism as an open possibility. V "Reductionism takes the spiritual out of life, by making everything mathematical physics. But "Anti-Semitism" usually means the hatred of Jews.
Anti-Semitism was a central doctrine in Nazi ideology. Nowadays, the movement has taken more moderate forms, such as the Fund for the Replacement of Animals in Medical Experimentation, which teaches the "Three R's": Replacement of animals with tissue cultures and computer modeling , Reduction of the number of animals used in each trial , and Refinement of experimentation by less painful methods.
Dissertations & Theses from 12222
The publish a scientific journal called Alternatives to Laboratory Animals , and other journals also exist. ANXIETY : Latin anxietas anticipation of impending dread, danger or misfortune not associated with an apparent stimulus and accompanied by tension, restlessness and other adrenaline-generated physiological symptoms such as increased heart rate, throat tension, gut cramps, tremors, cold sweats and insomnia. Psychological symptoms are subjective and often "free-floating". Anxiety disorders are complex and may take different forms generalized anxiety, separation anxiety, panic anxiety, situationalgical variables.
Anti-anxiety drugs anxiolytics , by helping to control the physiological symptoms, provide relief. The definitive treatment, however, restsr example changes in health, self-concept or environment, maturational crises or subconscious conflicts. In the past in South Africa for much of the twentieth century. APATHY: A state of not caring; not wanting to know; complacency; indifference; to ignore; disinterested in contemplation; anesthetized by popular culture; a postmodern intellectual narcosis; compassion fatigue; too lazy; too busy; self-indulgence; limited choices in work and leisure-time; non-reflection, non-deliberation and subconscious blocking of distressing information.
Apathy is less ethically excusable than ignorance. APE : A class of biological organisms that are primates. Homo sapiens , chimpanzees, gorillas and orangutans and so-called Great Apes. She represented two kinds of love - the satisfaction of the fleshly desires and the essential quality of good in the person who loves to perfection see VENUS.
All animal cells carry an intrinsic genetic "death" program which is important in growth and development, and in the repair and maintenance of mature body tissues. Apoptosis is not a cause of aging; however defects in this system may contribute to age-related processes Greek apo meaning away and ptosis falling. The distinction is the same as that between Foundational Bioethics studying the foundations of bioethical reasoning in culture, spirituality, religion, law and philosophy and Applied Bioethics including clinical medical and nursing ethics, environmental ethics, research ethics, etc.
There is a philosophical journal called Applied Ethics. These small devices can navigate in three dimensions and use sensors to collect oceanographic data, carry out underwater mapping, measure effluent pollutants, gather military intelligence or sweep mines. Future generations of aquabots may be schooled to create a moving sensor array, and of course may also potentially be weaponized. When seawater is used then it is called mariculture. In fish farming areas fishes like Tilapia and other commercially valuable fishes can be cultured. In a marine ecosystem shell fishes like Perna viridis green mussel oysters are cultivated as a commercial enterprise.
His philosophy is called Thomism. The Scholastics were Catholics who were known for their detailed, logical debates, often dwelling on fine and seemingly sterile distinctions to the point that they have been accused of "hair splitting". It was joked about them that they would debate for years about how many angels could dance on the point of a pin. The joke is unfair. Aquinas' detailed method of question and argument did not always lead to results.
But -- like mathematical games -- it engendered habits of careful and penetrating logical thinking, which became part of the European intellectual tradition. Although this practice was at first objected to by other Church authorities, it eventually became so embedded in European Christian culture that disagreeing with Aristotle was considered to be at least as heretical as disagreeing with Jesus.
This attitude remained until criticised by the mathematical and scientific philosophers of the Seventeenth Century, like Rene Descartes, and by the Protestant Reformation. Aquinas was also familiar with Arabic philosophy, and disagreed with European followers of Ibn Roshd, who were referred to as the Latin Averroists. In the Aristotelian philosophy, that element of the soul, which is responsible for intellectual understanding, is called the Agent Intellect. Aristotle thought that the agent intellect is eternal.
Ibn Roshd accepted this idea, and argued that there is only one agent intellect, which is shared by all humans. Maimonides' doctrine seems to have been similar, as he refers to the agent intellect as an angel. Siger of Brabant, however, went further and argued that the passive elements of intellection are also common to all humans. This is tantamount to monopsychism, the doctrine that there really is only one soul, in which we all share.
This made Aquinas quite angry, because it seems to provide a philosophical basis for forgiving sinners too easily. For, as Latin Averroists seemed to believe, if Saint Paul's soul is saved, and if my soul is the same as that of Saint Paul, then my soul is already saved as well. So even if I sin all I like, I will get to heaven. Aquinas' On the Unity of the Intellect is a polemical diatribe against this doctrine.
But monopsychism seems bioethically appealing nonetheless. It seems to affirm the unity and solidarity of all humans, encouraging love. And why shouldn't we welcome reasons for forgiving people? It says that it is permissible to do an act which produces an unethical effect, when the act is performed with the intention of achieving another effect which itself is ethical. The unethical effect may be foreseen, but it must not be intended.
Thus, priests have permitted birth control pills if the intended effect is to regulate the menstrual period, and not to prevent conception. The doctrine is used to permit giving patients high doses of opiods like morphine or heroin, even if death is a foreseen result, when what is intended is not death but relieving pain.
This application of the doctrine has been hotly debated. ARBITRARY: Uncertain; random; accidental; discretionary; outside of central relevance to the methodology, law or principle, therefore accepting of individual choice and subjectivity. Author of works on logic, philosophy, natural science, ethics, politics and poetics.
He believed in living according to a "middle road" between extremes an idea which is also found in Buddhist writings, leading to the question whether it began in Greece or much farther East. He thought that the most ethical life is the life of intellectual activity, in which we become most similar to and beloved by the gods.
His main ethical works, the Nicomachean Ethics and the Politics, were the crowning finale to a massive corpus including logic, scientific method, philosophy of mathematics, physics, biology and metaphysics.
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This raises the question whether todays specialized BA, MA and PhD programmes in ethics are the best way to educate bioethicists. Perhaps they should start with more science and substantive philosophy, like Aristotle. Health care, wellness, nursing process, wound healing, wound care, homeostasis, cardiovascular disorder, hematologic disorder, respiratory disorder, gastrointestinal disorder, renal disorder, urinary tract disorder, reproductive system disorder, immune system disorder, eye disorder, ear disorder, nose disorder, nurse practice act.
Abstract Abstract The chapter talks about the medical and surgical nursing. It covers a range of topics that include health and wellness care, nursing process, wound healing and wound care, disruption of homeostasis, cardiovascular disorders, hematologic disorders, respiratory disorders, gastrointestinal disorders, renal and urinary tract disorders, reproductive system disorders, immune system disorders, eye, ear and nose disorders.
The nursing process provides a basis for problem-solving, clinical decisions and individualized patient care. It uses the scientific method of observation, measurement, data collection and data analysis to evaluate the needs of patients and their families. This chapter also delves upon nurse practice acts, legal concepts of responsibility, possible defenses to a health care negligence suit, professional liability insurance for nurses, ethical aspects of nursing, common legal concerns for nurses and many others.