This paper proposes a theoretical model that offers a rationale for the formation of lender syndicates. We argue that the ex-ante process of information acquisition may affect the strategies used to create syndicates. For large loans, the restrictions on lending impose a natural reason for syndication.
We study medium-sized loans instead, where there is some room for competition since each financial institution has the ability to take the loan in full by itself. In this case, syndication would be the optimal choice only if their screening costs are similar. Otherwise, lenders would be compelled to compete, since a lower screening cost can create a comparative advantage in interest rates. We consider a model of bargaining by concessions where agents can terminate negotiations by accepting the settlement of an arbitrator.
The impact of pragmatic arbitrators—that enforce concessions that precede their appointment—is compared with that of arbitrators that act on principle—ignoring prior concessions. We show that while the impact of arbitration always depends on how costly that intervention is relative to direct negotiation, the range of scenarios for which it has an impact, and the precise effect of such impact, does change depending on the behavior— pragmatic or on principle—of the arbitrator.
Moreover the requirement of mutual consent to appoint the arbitrator matters only when he is pragmatic. Efficiency and equilibrium are not aligned since agents sometimes reach negotiated agreements when an arbitrated settlement is more efficient and vice versa. What system of arbitration has the best performance depends on the arbitration and negotiation costs, and each can be optimal for plausible environments.
This paper analyzes a War of Attrition where players enjoy private information about their outside opportunities. The main message is that uncertainty about the possibility that the opponent opts out increases the equilibrium probability of concession. In many modern production systems the human operator is faced with problems when it comes to interacting with the production system using the control system.
One reason for this is that the control systems are mainly designed with respect to production, without taking into account how an operator is supposed to interact with it. This article presents a control system where the goal is to increase flexibility and reusability of production equipment and program modules. Apart from this, the control system is also suitable for human operator interaction. To make it easier for an operator to interact with the control system, the operator activities vis-a-vis the control system have been divided into so called control levels.
One of the six predefined control levels is described more in detail to illustrate how production can be manipulated with the help of a control system at this level. The communication with the control system is accomplished with the help of a graphical tool that interacts with a relational database. The tool has been implemented in Java to make it platform-independent. Some examples of the tool and how it can be used are provided. Modern control systems often exhibit problems in switches between automatic and manual system control. One reason for this is the structure of the control system, which is usually not designed for this type of action.
This article presents a method for splitting the control system into different control levels. By switching between these control levels, the operator can increase or decrease the number of manual control activities he wishes to perform while still enjoying the support of the control system. The structural advantages of the control levels are demonstrated for two types of operator activity; 1 control flow tracing; and 2 control flow alteration. These two types of operator activity can be used in such situations as when locating an error, introducing a new machine, changing the ordering of products or optimizing the production flow.
Partly due to the introduction of computers and intelligent machines in modern manufacturing, the role of the operator has changed with time. More and more of the work tasks have been automated, reducing the need for human interactions. One reason for this is the decrease in the relative cost of computers and machinery compared to the cost of having operators.
Even though this statement may be true in industrialized countries it is not evident that it is valid in developing countries. However, a statement that is valid for both industrialized countries and developing countries is to obtain balanced automation systems. A balanced automation system is characterized by "the correct mix of automated activities and the human activities". The way of reaching this goal, however, might be different depending on the place of the manufacturing installation. Aspects, such as time, money, safety, flexibility and quality, govern the steps to take in order to reach a balanced automation system.
In this paper there are defined six steps of automation that identify areas of work activities in a modern manufacturing system, that might be performed by either an automatic system or a human. By combining these steps of automation in what is called levels of automation, a mix of automatic and manual activities is obtained. Through the analysis of these levels of automation, with respect to machine costs and product quality, it is demonstrated which the lowest possible automation level should be when striving for balanced automation systems in developing countries. The bottom line of the discussion is that product supervision should not be left to human operators solely, but rather be performed automatically by the system.
In the matching with contracts literature, three well-known conditions from stronger to weaker —substitutes, unilateral substitutes US , and bilateral substitutes BS —have proven to be critical. This paper aims to deepen our understanding of them by separately axiomatizing the gap between BS and the other two. All of these results are given without IRC whenever hospitals have preferences.
The paper analyzes the role of labor market segmentation and relative wage rigidity in the transmission process of disinflation policies in an open economy facing imperfect capital markets. Wages are flexible in the nontradables sector, and based on efficiency factors in the tradables sector. With perfect labor mobility, a permanent reduction in the devaluation rate leads in the long run to a real appreciation, a lower ratio of output of tradables to nontradables, an increase in real wages measured in terms of tradables, and a fall in the product wage in the nontradables sector.
Under imperfect labor mobility, unemployment temporarily rises. A number of studies document gender differentials in agricultural productivity. However, they are limited to region and crop-specific estimates of the mean gender gap. This article improves on previous work in three ways. First, data representative at the national level and for a wide variety of crops is exploited. Second, decomposition methods—traditionally used in the analysis of wage gender gaps—are employed.
Third, heterogeneous effects by women's marital status and along the productivity distribution are analyzed. Drawing on data from the — Ethiopian Rural Socioeconomic Survey, we find an overall The magnitude of the unexplained fraction is large relative to prior estimates in the literature. A more detailed analysis suggests that differences in the returns to extension services, land certification, land extension, and product diversification may contribute to the unexplained fraction.
Moreover, the productivity gap is mostly driven by non-married female managers—particularly divorced women—; married female managers do not display a disadvantage. Finally, overall and unexplained gender differentials are more pronounced at mid-levels of productivity. In this work we construct a numerical scheme based on finite differences to approximate the free boundary of an American call option. Points of the free boundary are calculated by approximating the solution of the Black-Scholes partial differential equation with finite differences on domains that are parallelograms for each time step.
Numerical results are reported. We present higher-order quadrature rules with end corrections for general Newton—Cotes quadrature rules. The construction is based on the Euler—Maclaurin formula for the trapezoidal rule. We present examples with 6 well-known Newton—Cotes quadrature rules. We analyzemodified end corrected quadrature rules, which consist on a simple modification of the Newton—Cotes quadratures with end corrections. Numerical tests and stability estimates show the superiority of the corrected rules based on the trapezoidal and the midpoint rules. The constructions of the quadratures are based on the method of central corrections described in .
The quadratures consist of the trapezoidal rule plus a local weighted sum of the values of v around the point of singularity. Integrals of the above type appear in scattering calculations; we test the performance of the quadrature rules with an example of this kind. The procedure we use is a modification of the method constructed in . These quadratures are particularly useful in acoustic scattering calculations with large wave numbers.
We describe how to extend the procedure to calculate other 2-dimensional integrals with different singularities. In this paper, we propose an anisotropic adaptive refinement algorithm based on the finite element methods for the numerical solution of partial differential equations. In 2-D, for a given triangular grid and finite element approximating space V, we obtain information on location and direction of refinement by estimating the reduction of the error if a single degree of freedom is added to V.
For our model problem the algorithm fits highly stretched triangles along an interior layer, reducing the number of degrees of freedom that a standard h-type isotropic refinement algorithm would use. In this paper we construct an algorithm that generates a sequence of continuous functions that approximate a given real valued function f of two variables that have jump discontinuities along a closed curve.
The algorithm generates a sequence of triangulations of the domain of f. The triangulations include triangles with high aspect ratio along the curve where f has jumps. The sequence of functions generated by the algorithm are obtained by interpolating f on the triangulations using continuous piecewise polynomial functions. The procedure employed here is a generalization to 3-D of the method of central corrections for logarithmic singularities  in one dimension, and  in two dimensions.
As in one and two dimensions, the correction coefficients for high-order trapezoidal rules for J v are independent of the number of sampling points used to discretize the cube D. When v is compactly supported in D, the approximation is the trapezoidal rule plus a local weighted sum of the values of v around the point of singularity.
These quadrature rules provide an efficient, stable and accurate way of approximating J v. We demonstrate the performance of these quadratures of orders up to 17 for highly oscillatory functions v. These type of integrals appear in scattering calculations in 3-D. We present a high-order, fast, iterative solver for the direct scattering calculation for the Helmholtz equation in two dimensions.
Our algorithm solves the scattering problem formulated as the Lippmann-Schwinger integral equation for compactly supported, smoothly vanishing scatterers. There are two main components to this algorithm. First, the integral equation is discretized with quadratures based on high-order corrected trapezoidal rules for the logarithmic singularity present in the kernel of the integral equation.
Second, on the uniform mesh required for the trapezoidal rule we rewrite the discretized integral operator as a composition of two linear operators: a discrete convolution followed by a diagonal multiplication; therefore, the application of these operators to an arbitrary vector, required by an iterative method for the solution of the discretized linear system, will cost N 2 log N for a N-by-N mesh, with the help of FFT.
We will demonstrate the performance of the algorithm for scatterers of complex structures and at large wave numbers. For numerical implementations, CMRES iterations will be used, and corrected trapezoidal rules up to order 20 will be tested. The procedure we use is a generalization to 2-D of the method of central corrections for logarithmic singularities described in .
As in 1-D, the correction coefficients are independent of the number of sampling points used to discretize the square D. When v has compact support contained in D, the approximation is the trapezoidal rule plus a local weighted sum of the values of v around the point of singularity. These quadrature rules give an efficient, stable, and accurate way of approximating J v. We provide the correction coefficients to obtain corrected trapezoidal quadrature rules up to order This paper addresses the problem of the optimal design of batch plants with imprecise demands in product amounts.
The design of such plants necessarily involves the way that equipment may be utilized, which means that plant scheduling and production must form an integral part of the design problem. This work relies on a previous study, which proposed an alternative treatment of the imprecision demands by introducing fuzzy concepts, embedded in a multi-objective Genetic Algorithm GA that takes into account simultaneously maximization of the net present value NPV and two other performance criteria, i. The results showed that an additional interpretation step might be necessary to help the managers choosing among the non-dominated solutions provided by the GA.
The analytic hierarchy process AHP is a strategy commonly used in Operations Research for the solution of this kind of multicriteria decision problems, allowing the apprehension of manager subjective judgments. The major aim of this study is thus to propose a software integrating the AHP theory for the analysis of the GA Pareto-optimal solutions, as an alternative decision-support tool for the batch plant design problem solution.
A workflow is a set of steps or tasks that model the execution of a process, e. Workflow applications commonly require large computational resources. Hence, distributed computing approaches such as Grid and Cloud computing emerge as a feasible solution to execute them. Two important factors for executing workflows in distributed computing platforms are 1 workflow scheduling and 2 resource allocation.
As a consequence, there is a myriad of workflow scheduling algorithms that map workflow tasks to distributed resources subject to task dependencies, time and budget constraints. In this paper, we present a taxonomy of workflow scheduling algorithms, which categorizes the algorithms into 1 best-effort algorithms including heuristics, metaheuristics, and approximation algorithms and 2 quality-of-service algorithms including budget-constrained, deadline-constrained and algorithms simultaneously constrained by deadline and budget.
In addition, a workflow engine simulator was developed to quantitatively compare the performance of scheduling algorithms. We study the behavior of a decision maker who prefers alternative x to alternative y in menu A if the utility of x exceeds that of y by at least a threshold associated with y and A. Hence the decision maker's preferences are given by menu-dependent interval orders.
In every menu, her choice set comprises of undominated alternatives according to this preference. We axiomatize this broad model when thresholds are monotone, i. We also obtain novel characterizations in two special cases that have appeared in the literature: the maximization of a fixed interval order where the thresholds depend on the alternative and not on the menu, and the maximization of monotone semiorders where the thresholds are independent of the alternatives but monotonic in menus.
Shelf life experiments have as an outcome a matrix of zeroes and ones that represent the acceptance or no acceptance of customers when presented with samples of the product under evaluation in a random fashion within a designed experiment. This kind of response is called a Bernoulli response due to the dichotomous nature 0,1 of its values. It is not rare to find inconsistent sequences of responses, that is when a customer rejects a less aged sample and does not reject an older sample. That is, we find a zero before a one. This is due to the human factor present in the experiment.
In the presence of this kind of inconsistencies some conventions have been taken in the literature in order to estimate shelf life distribution using methods and software from the reliability field which requires numerical responses. In this work we propose a method that does not require coding the original responses into numerical values. We use a more reliable coding by using the Bernoulli response directly and using a Bayesian approach. The resulting method is based on solid Bayesian theory and proved computer programs.
We show by means of an example and simulation studies that the new methodology clearly beats the methodology proposed by Hough. We also provide the R software necessary for the implementation. Definitive Screening Designs DSD are a class of experimental designs that have the possibility to estimate linear, quadratic and interaction effects with relatively little experimental effort. The linear or main effects are completely independent of two factor interactions and quadratic effects. The two factor interactions are not completely confounded with other two factor interactions, and quadratic effects are estimable.
The number of experimental runs is twice the number of factors of interest plus one. Several approaches have been proposed to analyze the results of these experimental plans, some of these approaches take into account the structure of the design, others do not. The first author of this paper proposed a Bayesian sequential procedure that takes into account the structure of the design, this procedure consider normal and non normal responses. The creators of the DSD originally performed a forward stepwise regression programmed in JMP, and also used the minimization of a bias corrected version of Akaike's information criterion, and later they proposed a frequentist procedure that considers the structure of the DSD.
Both the frequentist and Bayesian procedures, when the number of experimental runs is twice the number of factors of interest plus one, use as initial step fitting a model with only main effects and then check the significance of these effects to proceed. In this paper we present modification of the Bayesian procedure that incorporates the Bayesian factor identification which is an approach that computes, for each factor, the posterior probability that it is active, this includes the possibility that it is present in linear, quadratic or two factor interactions.
This a more comprehensive approach than just testing the significance of an effect. Definitive Screening Designs are a class of experimental designs that under factor sparsity have the potential to estimate linear, quadratic and interaction effects with little experimental effort. BAYESDEF is a package that performs a five step strategy to analyze this kind of experiments that makes use of tools coming from the Bayesian approach. It also includes the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator lasso as a check Aguirre VM.
With the advent of widespread computing and availability of open source programs to perform many different programming tasks, nowadays there is a trend in Statistics to program tailor made applications for non statistical customers in various areas. This is an alternative to having a large statistical package with many functions many of which never are used. Consonance Analysis is a useful numerical and graphical exploratory approach for evaluating the consistency of the measurements and the panel of people involved in sensory evaluation.
It makes use of several uni and multivariate techniques either graphical or analytical, particularly Principal Components Analysis. The package is implemented in a graphical user interface in order to get a user friendly package. Definitive screening designs DSDs are a class of experimental designs that allow the estimation of linear, quadratic, and interaction effects with little experimental effort if there is effect sparsity.
Many industrial experiments involve nonnormal responses. Generalized linear models GLMs are a useful alternative for analyzing these kind of data. The analysis of GLMs is based on asymptotic theory, something very debatable, for example, in the case of the DSD with only 13 experimental runs. So far, analysis of DSDs considers a normal response. In this work, we show a five-step strategy that makes use of tools coming from the Bayesian approach to analyze this kind of experiment when the response is nonnormal.
We consider the case of binomial, gamma, and Poisson responses without having to resort to asymptotic approximations. We use posterior odds that effects are active and posterior probability intervals for the effects and use them to evaluate the significance of the effects. We also combine the results of the Bayesian procedure with the lasso estimation procedure to enhance the scope of the method. It is not uncommon to deal with very small experiments in practice. For example, if the experiment is conducted on the production process, it is likely that only a very few experimental runs will be allowed.
If testing involves the destruction of expensive experimental units, we might only have very small fractions as experimental plans. In this paper, we will consider the analysis of very small factorial experiments with only four or eight experimental runs. In addition, the methods presented here could be easily applied to larger experiments. A Daniel plot of the effects to judge significance may be useless for this type of situation. Instead, we will use different tools based on the Bayesian approach to judge significance.
The first tool consists of the computation of the posterior probability that each effect is significant. The second tool is referred to in Bayesian analysis as the posterior distribution for each effect. Combining these tools with the Daniel plot gives us more elements to judge the signiicance of an effect. Because, in practice, the response may not necessarily be normally distributed, we will extend our approach to the generalized linear model setup.
By simulation, we will show that not only in the case of discrete responses and very small experiments, the usual large sample approach for modeling generalized linear models may produce a very biased and variable estimators, but also that the Bayesian approach provides a very sensible results. Inference for quantile regression parameters presents two problems. First, it is computationally costly because estimation requires optimising a non-differentiable objective function which is a formidable numerical task, specially with many number of observations and regressors.
Second, it is controversial because standard asymptotic inference requires the choice of smoothing parameters and different choices may lead to different conclusions. Bootstrap methods solve the latter problem at the price of enlarging the former. We give a theoretical justification for a new inference method consisting of the construction of asymptotic pivots based on a small number of bootstrap replications. We show its usefulness to draw inferences on linear or non-linear functions of the parameters of quantile regression models.
The existing methods for analyzing unreplicated fractional factorial experiments that do not contemplate the possibility of outliers in the data have a poor performance for detecting the active effects when that contingency becomes a reality. There are some methods to detect active effects under this experimental setup that consider outliers.
We propose a new procedure based on robust regression methods to estimate the effects that allows for outliers. We perform a simulation study to compare its behavior relative to existing methods and find that the new method has a very competitive or even better power. The relative power improves as the contamination and size of outliers increase when the number of active effects is up to four. The paper presents the asymptotic theory of the efficient method of moments when the model of interest is not correctly specified.
The paper assumes a sequence of independent and identically distributed observations and a global misspecification. It is found that the limiting distribution of the estimator is still asymptotically normal, but it suffers a strong impact in the covariance matrix. A consistent estimator of this covariance matrix is provided. The large sample distribution on the estimated moment function is also obtained. These results are used to discuss the situation when the moment conditions hold but the model is misspecified.
It also is shown that the overidentifying restrictions test has asymptotic power one whenever the limit moment function is different from zero. It is also proved that the bootstrap distributions converge almost surely to the previously mentioned distributions and hence they could be used as an alternative to draw inferences under misspecification. Interestingly, it is also shown that bootstrap can be reliably applied even if the number of bootstrap replications is very small.
It is well known that outliers or faulty observations affect the analysis of unreplicated factorial experiments. This work proposes a method that combines the rank transformation of the observations, the Daniel plot and a formal statistical testing procedure to assess the significance of the effects.
It is shown, by means of previous theoretical results cited in the literature, examples and a Monte Carlo study, that the approach is helpful in the presence of outlying observations. The simulation study includes an ample set of alternative procedures that have been published in the literature to detect significant effects in unreplicated experiments.
The Monte Carlo study also, gives evidence that using the rank transformation as proposed, provides two advantages: keeps control of the experimentwise error rate and improves the relative power to detect active factors in the presence of outlying observations. Most of the inferential results are based on the assumption that the user has a "random" sample, by this it is usually understood that the observations are a realization from a set of independent identically distributed random variables.
However most of the time this is not true mainly for two reasons: one, the data are not obtained by means of a probabilistic sampling scheme from the population, the data are just gathered as they becomes available or in the best of the cases using some kind of control variables and quota sampling.
For an excellent discussion about the kind of considerations that should be made in the first situation see Hahn and Meeker and a related comment in Aguirre For the second problem there is a book about the topic in Skinner et a1. In this paper we consider the problem of evaluating the effect of sampling complexity on Pearson's Chi-square and other alternative tests for goodness of fit for proportions. Out of this work come up several adjustments to Pearson's test, namely: Wald type tests, average eigenvalue correction and Satterthwaite type correction.
There is a more recent and general resampling approach given in Sitter , but it was not pursued in this study. Sometimes data analysis using the usual parametric techniques produces misleading results due to violations of the underlying assumptions, such as outliers or non-constant variances. In particular, this could happen in unreplicated factorial or fractional factorial experiments. To help in this situation alternative analyses have been proposed. For example Box and Meyer give a Bayesian analysis allowing for possibly faulty observations in un replicated factorials and the well known Box-Cox transformation can be used when there is a change in dispersion.
This paper presents an analysis based on the rank transformation that deals with the above problems. The analysis is simple to use and can be implemented with a general purpose statistical computer package. The procedure is illustrated with examples from the literature. A theoretical justification is outlined at the end of the paper. The article considers the problem of choosing between two possibly nonlinear models that have been fitted to the same data using M-estimation methods. An asymptotically normally distributed lest statistics using a Monte Carlo study.
We found that the presence of a competitive model either in the null or the alternative hypothesis affects the distributional properties of the tests, and that in the case that the data contains outlying observations the new procedure had a significantly higher power that the rest of the test.
Fuller , Anderson , and Hannan introduce infinite moving average models as the limit in the quadratic mean of a sequence of partial sums, and Fuller shows that if the assumption of independence of the addends is made then the limit almost surely holds. This note shows that without the assumption of independence, the limit holds with probability one. Moreover, the proofs given here are easier to teach. A test for the problem or choosing between several nonnested nonlinear regression models simultaneously is presented.
The test does not require an explicit specification of a parametric family of distributions for the error term and has a closed form. The asymptotic dislribution of the generalized Cox test for choosing between two multivariate, nonlinear regression models in implicit form is derived. The data is assumed to be generated by a model that need not be either the null or the non-null model.
- James Madison University 2012.
- Tres poemas de Irene Tapias;
- June: The Word for Today (Christian Devotional Book 6).
Some investigations of these characteristics are included. The idea is to replace an analytical computation of the expectation of the Cox difference with a bootstrap estimate. In many Solvency and Basel loss data, there are thresholds or deductibles that affect the analysis capability. On the other hand, the Birnbaum-Saunders model has received great attention during the last two decades and it can be used as a loss distribution.
In this paper, we propose a solution to the problem of deductibles using a truncated version of the Birnbaum-Saunders distribution. The probability density function, cumulative distribution function, and moments of this distribution are obtained. In addition, properties regularly used in insurance industry, such as multiplication by a constant inflation effect and reciprocal transformation, are discussed. Furthermore, a study of the behavior of the risk rate and of risk measures is carried out.
Moreover, estimation aspects are also considered in this work. Finally, an application based on real loss data from a commercial bank is conducted. This paper proposes two new estimators for determining the number of factors r in static approximate factor models.
We exploit the well-known fact that the r largest eigenvalues of the variance matrix of N response variables grow unboundedly as N increases, while the other eigenvalues remain bounded. The new estimators are obtained simply by maximizing the ratio of two adjacent eigenvalues. Our simulation results provide promising evidence for the two estimators.
We study a modification of the Luce rule for stochastic choice which admits the possibility of zero probabilities. In any given menu, the decision maker uses the Luce rule on a consideration set, potentially a strict subset of the menu. Without imposing any structure on how the consideration sets are formed, we characterize the resulting behavior using a single axiom. Our result offers insight into special cases where consideration sets are formed under various restrictions. Purpose— This paper summarizes the findings of a research project aimed at benchmarking the environmental sustainability practices of the top Mexican companies.
The survey also explored how the adoption of environmental sustainability practices relates to the competitiveness of these firms. Findings— The results suggest that Mexican companies are very active in the various areas of business where environmental sustainability is relevant. Because the manufacturing sector is significantly overrepresented in the sample and because of its importance in addressing issues of environmental sustainability, when appropriate, specific results for this sector are reported and contrasted to the overall sample.
Publicaciones de la facultad
Practical implications— The vast majority of these firms see adopting environmental sustainability practices as being profitable and think this will be even more important in the future. In Mexico, one might expect that the same would be true, but only anecdotal evidence was heretofore available. We derive optimal consumption and portfolio policies that are robust to uncertainty about the hard-to-estimate drift rate, jump intensity and jump size parameters. We also provide a semi-closed form formula for the detection-error probability and compare various portfolio holding strategies, including robust and non-robust policies.
Our quantitative analysis shows that ignoring uncertainty leads to significant wealth loss for the investor. We exploit the manifold increase in homicides in —11 in Mexico resulting from its war on organized drug traffickers to estimate the effect of drug-related homicides on housing prices. We use an unusually rich data set that provides national coverage of housing prices and homicides and exploits within-municipality variations. We find that the impact of violence on housing prices is borne entirely by the poor sectors of the population.
An increase in homicides equivalent to 1 standard deviation leads to a 3 percent decrease in the price of low-income housing. This paper examines foreign direct investment FDI in the Hungarian economy in the period of post-Communist transition since Hungary took a quite aggressive approach in welcoming foreign investment during this period and as a result had the highest per capita FDI in the region as of We discuss the impact of FDI in terms of strategic intent, i.
The effect of these two kinds of FDI is contrasted by examining the impact of resource seeking FDI in manufacturing sectors and market serving FDI in service industries. In the case of transition economies, we argue that due to the strategic intent, resource seeking FDI can imply a short-term impact on economic development whereas market serving FDI strategically implies a long-term presence with increased benefits for the economic development of a transition economy. Our focus is that of market serving FDI in the Hungarian banking sector, which has brought improved service and products to multinational and Hungarian firms.
This has been accompanied by the introduction of innovative financial products to the Hungarian consumer, in particular consumer credit including mortgage financing. However, the latter remains an underserved segment with much growth potential. For public policy in Hungary and other transition economies, we conclude that policymakers should consider the strategic intent of FDI in order to maximize its benefits in their economies.
We propose a general framework for extracting rotation invariant features from images for the tasks of image analysis and classification. Our framework is inspired in the form of the Zernike set of orthogonal functions. It provides a way to use a set of one-dimensional functions to form an orthogonal set over the unit disk by non-linearly scaling its domain, and then associating it an exponential term. When the images are projected into the subspace created with the proposed framework, the rotations in the image affect only the exponential term while the value of the orthogonal functions serve as rotation invariant features.
We exemplify our framework using the Haar wavelet functions to extract features from several thousand images of symbols. We then use the features in an OCR experiment to demonstrate the robustness of the method. In this paper we explore the use of orthogonal functions as generators of representative, compact descriptors of image content. In Image Analysis and Pattern Recognition such descriptors are referred to as image features, and there are some useful properties they should possess such as rotation invariance and the capacity to identify different instances of one class of images.
We exemplify our algorithmic methodology using the family of Daubechies wavelets, since they form an orthogonal function set. We benchmark the quality of the image features generated by doing a comparative OCR experiment with three different sets of image features. Our algorithm can use a wide variety of orthogonal functions to generate rotation invariant features, thus providing the flexibility to identify sets of image features that are best suited for the recognition of different classes of images. When analyzing catastrophic risk, traditional measures for evaluating risk, such as the probable maximum loss PML , value at risk VaR , tail-VaR, and others, can become practically impossible to obtain analytically in certain types of insurance, such as earthquake, and certain types of reinsurance arrangements, specially non-proportional with reinstatements.
Given the available information, it can be very difficult for an insurer to measure its risk exposure. This effect can be assessed mathematically. The PML is defined in terms of a very extreme quantile. The resulting reinsurance structures will then be very complicated to analyze and to evaluate their mitigation or transfer effects analytically, so it may be necessary to use alternative approaches, such as Monte Carlo simulation methods. This is what we do in this paper in order to measure the effect of a complex reinsurance treaty on the risk profile of an insurance company.
We compute the pure risk premium, PML as well as a host of results: impact on the insured portfolio, risk transfer effect of reinsurance programs, proportion of times reinsurance is exhausted, percentage of years it was necessary to use the contractual reinstatements, etc. Since the estimators of quantiles are known to be biased, we explore the alternative of using an Extreme Value approach to complement the analysis.
The need to estimate future claims has led to the development of many loss reserving techniques. There are two important problems that must be dealt with in the process of estimating reserves for outstanding claims: one is to determine an appropriate model for the claims process, and the other is to assess the degree of correlation among claim payments in different calendar and origin years. We approach both problems here. On the one hand we use a gamma distribution to model the claims process and, in addition, we allow the claims to be correlated. We follow a Bayesian approach for making inference with vague prior distributions.
The methodology is illustrated with a real data set and compared with other standard methods.
Hispania. Volume 73, Number 3, September 1990
Consider a random sample X1, X2,. Only the sample size, mean and range are recorded and it is necessary to estimate the unknown population mean and standard deviation. In this paper the estimation of the mean and standard deviation is made from a Bayesian perspective by using a Markov Chain Monte Carlo MCMC algorithm to simulate samples from the intractable joint posterior distribution of the mean and standard deviation. The proposed methodology is applied to simulated and real data. This paper is concerned with the situation that occurs in claims reserving when there are negative values in the development triangle of incremental claim amounts.
Typically these negative values will be the result of salvage recoveries, payments from third parties, total or partial cancellation of outstanding claims due to initial overestimation of the loss or to a possible favorable jury decision in favor of the insurer, rejection by the insurer, or just plain errors. Some of the traditional methods of claims reserving, such as the chain-ladder technique, may produce estimates of the reserves even when there are negative values. Historically the chain-ladder method has been used as a gold standard benchmark because of its generalized use and ease of application.
This paper presents a Bayesian model to consider negative incremental values, based on a three-parameter log-normal distribution. The model presented here allows the actuary to provide point estimates and measures of dispersion, as well as the complete distribution for outstanding claims from which the reserves can be derived. It is concluded that the method has a clear advantage over other existing methods. The BMOM is particularly useful for obtaining post-data moments and densities for parameters and future observations when the form of the likelihood function is unknown and thus a traditional Bayesian approach cannot be used.
Also, even when the form of the likelihood is assumed known, in time series problems it is sometimes difficult to formulate an appropriate prior density. Here, we show how the BMOM approach can be used in two, nontraditional problems. The first one is conditional forecasting in regression and time series autoregressive models.
Specifically, it is shown that when forecasting disaggregated data say quarterly data and given aggregate constraints say in terms of annual data it is possible to apply a Bayesian approach to derive conditional forecasts in the multiple regression model. The types of constraints conditioning usually considered are that the sum, or the average, of the forecasts equals a given value. This kind of condition can be applied to forecasting quarterly values whose sum must be equal to a given annual value.
Analogous results are obtained for AR p models. The second problem we analyse is the issue of aggregation and disaggregation of data in relation to predictive precision and modelling. Predictive densities are derived for future aggregate values by means of the BMOM based on a model for disaggregated data. They are then compared with those derived based on aggregated data. En este trabajo se analiza el problema en el contexto de muestreo por conglomerados. Se presenta un estimador puntual y uno para la varianza del total.
The problem of estimating the accumulated value of a positive and continuous variable for which some partially accumulated data has been observed, and usually with only a small number of observations two years , can be approached taking advantage of the existence of stable seasonality from one period to another. For example the quantity to be predicted may be the total for a period year and it needs to be made as soon as partial information becomes available for given subperiods months. These conditions appear in a natural way in the prediction of seasonal sales of style goods, such as toys; in the behavior of inventories of goods where demand varies seasonally, such as fuels; or banking deposits, among many other examples.
Enlaces de interés
In this paper, the problem is addressed within a cluster sampling framework. A ratio estimator is proposed for the total value to be forecasted under the assumption of stable seasonality. Estimators are obtained for both the point forecast and the variance. The procedure works well when standard methods cannot be applied due to the reduced number of observations.
Some real examples are included as well as applications to some previously published data. Comparisons are made with other procedures. We present a Bayesian solution to forecasting a time series when few observations are available. The quantity to predict is the accumulated value of a positive, continuous variable when partially accumulated data are observed.
These conditions appear naturally in predicting sales of style goods and coupon redemption. A simple model describes the relation between partial and total values, assuming stable seasonality. Exact analytic results are obtained for point forecasts and the posterior predictive distribution. Noninformative priors allow automatic implementation. Examples are provided. We give a brief description of the Project and characteristics of the target population. We then describe and use the FGT Index to determine if the communities included in the Project were correctly chosen.
We describe the method of cost-effectiveness analysis used in this article. The procedure for specifying cost-effectiveness ratios is next presented, and their application to measure the impact of PNAS on Food Expenditures carried out. Finally we present empirical results that show that, among other results, PNAS increased Food Expenditures of the participating households by 7. The evidence is mostly qualitative, however, since there are no methods for measuring this participation quantitatively. In this paper we present a procedure for generating an aggregate index of community participation based on productivity.
It is specifically aimed at measuring community participation in the construction of works for collective benefit. Because there are limitations on the information available, additional assumptions must be made to estimate parameters. The method is applied to data from communities in Mexico participating in a national nutrition, food and health program. A Bayesian approach is used to derive constrained and unconstrained forecasts in an autoregressive time series model. Both are obtained by formulating an AR p model in such a way that it is possible to compute numerically the predictive distribution for any number of forecasts.
The types of constraints considered are that a linear combination of the forecasts equals a given value. This kind of restriction is applied to forecasting quarterly values whose sum must be equal to a given annual value. Constrained forecasts are generated by conditioning on the predictive distribution of unconstrained forecasts.
The problem of temporal disaggregation of time series is analyzed by means of Bayesian methods. The disaggregated values are obtained through a posterior distribution derived by using a diffuse prior on the parameters. Further analysis is carried out assuming alternative conjugate priors. The means of the different posterior distribution are shown to be equivalent to some sampling theory results. Bayesian prediction intervals are obtained.
Forecasts for future disaggregated values are derived assuming a conjugate prior for the future aggregated value. A formulation of the problem of detecting outliers as an empirical Bayes problem is studied. In so doing we encounter a non-standard empirical Bayes problem for which the notion of average risk asymptotic optimality a. Some general theorems giving sufficient conditions for a. These general results are then used in various formulations of the outlier problem for underlying normal distributions to give a. Rates of convergence results are also given using the methods of Johns and Van Ryzin.
This article examines the distinctive characteristics and features of how both women and men speak. Based on this analysis, the author will make an assessment, and then invite the reader to become aware of their manner of speaking. En el presente trabajo, estudiamos los espacios de Brown, que son conexos y no completamente de Hausdorff. Escribimos algunas consecuencias de este resultado. Esto generaliza un resultado probado por Kirch en In the present paper we study Brown spaces which are connected and not completely Hausdorff. We also show that some elements of BG are Brown spaces, while others are totally separated.
We write some consequences of such result. For example, the space N, TG is not connected "im kleinen" at each of its points. This generalizes a result proved by Kirchin We also present a simpler proof of a result given by Szczuka in Morsi, A. In recent years has increased interest in the development of new materials in this case composites, as these more advanced materials can perform their work better than conventional materials. In the present work we analyze the effect of the addition of carbon nanotubes incorporating nano silver particles to increase both their electrical and mechanical properties.
The obtained alloys were characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy SEM , X-Ray Diffraction Analysis, hardness tests were performed and electrical conductivity tests were finally carried out. The salts were placed in the inlet to promote corrosion and increase the chemical reaction. These salts were applied to the alloys via discontinuous exposures. Bohemias evolution was a process that often mirrored and even led similar processes in the development of Cuban journalism. This study aims to depict the evolution of Cuban journalism and how Bohemia intervened in that process and helped to effectively shape the political culture of republican Cuba.
Its founders mission to reclaim Cuban sovereignty and agency through a neocolonial context takes on revolutionary overtones when his son was forced to steer the struggling publication through the challenges of dictatorship corruption violence and economic hardship. When the younger Quevedo took over Bohemia from his ailing father in , the magazine grew in radicalism to become a voice for a more politically, socially, and economically democratic Cuba. Bohemias amplified voice and its radical agitation for change was facilitated by the significant shifts in the social, political and economic contexts that were the results of both global and domestic conditions.
Its agitation for radical change in the late s and s was notable in that it was one of a handful of publications to explicitly do so. By the s and s Bohemias mission under the founders son intensifies as it becomes the most radical voice in the mainstream press to agitate for revolutionary change to the countrys political culture a clamor buttressed by the magazines fervent opposition to all dictatorships and support for Latin American revolutionaries. The memory of them and their sacrifice burns bright in their children and grandchildren.
Their countless sacrifices are not forgotten. My advisor Professor Lillian Guerra deserves much of the cr edit for helping guide me into shaping this work into its current form. Her vast and profound understanding of twentieth century Cuba has always amazed and impressed upon me the importance of working harder to understand Cuban history from as many differen t perspectives as possible, considering the diverse range of voi c es that deserve to be heard and represented to give a more nuanced interpretation to the complex history that characterized Cuba before the triumph of the Revolution.
I am indebted to Profess or Sherry Johnson for mentoring and encouraging me to pursue what I have always loved and for helping to light up my path to graduate school at the University of Florida. I am also indebted to Professor Rosana Resende who was generous and selfless with her time and gave me invaluable feedback even though her own schedule was hectic and demanding. There are people that provide support and encouragement throughout a process as laborious as writing a thesis that sometimes do not realize how instrumental they h ave been in helping to bring a project such as this to fruition.
I could not have completed this work without the support of Joseph Knapich: his love and encouragement through some very hard times and doubts kept me believing in the merit and the importanc e of this project.
My sister Sonia and brother Elio have always encouraged me to pursue the things that I love, and have served as a second set of parents to me. I appreciate their unconditional love and support more than they PAGE 5 5 probably know and see in thei r children, my niece and nephews, Julia, Tyler, Ryan and Connor the next generation of Cuban Americans that may one day be inspired to interpret for themselves a Cuba that is often misunderstood and characterized in stark and often reductionist terms.
Their friendship has often carried me through trying times. Their faith in this work helped fortify my own determination to complete it. This study aims to de pict the evolution of Cuban journalism and how Bohemia intervened in that process and helped to effectively shape the political culture of republican Cuba. Its on revolutionary overtones when his son was forced to ste er the struggling publication through the challenges of dictatorship, corruption, violence, and economic hardship.
When the younger Quevedo took over Bohemia from his ailing father in , the magazine grew in radicalism to become a voice for a more polit ically, socially, and economically democratic Cuba. By the s and s mission under the ce in the mainstream press to agitate fervent opposition to all dictatorships and support for Latin American revolutionaries.
Fears of a black revol t that aimed to not only wrest control from political elites but also pillage what the whites considered civilization stemmed from the days of the Haitian Revolution, when whites feared a similar fate would befall their own slave society. As Melina Pappade mos shows, the press embarked on a rampage of anti black and racist coverage of events. PAGE 10 10 approximate ly 2,, Its refusal to engage in the hysteria was the conscious decision on the part of its founder and editor Miguel ngel Quevedo Prez. Steeped in the tradition of the writing and journalism of Jos Mart and others that helped to ultimately creat e the Cuban republic, Quevedo Prez belonged to the first generation of Cubans that believed in the transformative effects of the press on the project of nation building.
As that spring wore on, and the press continued to rage against the imminent danger of a independence wars of the late nineteenth century and had previously championed racial equality, 4 The press became complicit in the resulting repression, which included the slaughter of almost five thousand and all blacks as inherently dangerous to soc iety. The daily El D a loudly proclaimed: This is a racist uprising, an uprising of blacks, in other words, an enormous danger and a common danger Racist movements are moved by hatred, and their purpose is negative, perverse; they are only conceived by free and beautiful America defending herself against a clawing scratch from Africa.
The word brujo translates to sorcerer and was frequently used by white Cubans, including renowned ethnologist Fernando Ortiz, to label the Afro Cuban religions such as Santeria as witchcraft. Between and Ortiz, then a young lawyer, explored the urban subculture of Afro Cubans, their religious beliefs and practices, and published his first book on the subject in as Los Negros Brujos The Black Sorcerers. See Fernando Ortiz, PAGE 11 11 press was complicit in the wholesale repression and slaughter of bla cks through its deliberate distortion of the conflict.
By conveying the idea that the PIC armed revolt was a race war it 7 As Lillian Guerra notes, public ju stification of state repression came from not only the on 8 Through their sensationalistic efforts, at a time when everyone on the island wanted to know what was happening, they also sold thousands of copies.
The emphasis of sensationalism over facts illustrated a style of yellow journalism that was rooted Independence War. The war between the American publishers William Randolph Hearst and Joseph Pulitzer had inspired a profit driven type of news coverage best exemplified by their depiction of developments in Cuba between and Cuban publicatio ns did not have to look too far back in the past to find a style they could emulate and cash in on.
Spencer, Evanston, Northwestern University Press, , PAGE 12 12 coverage of the uprising and subsequent massacre, much less any responsibility in its role in provoking fear and violence in the massacre. In writing about those years Portel Vil recalled 10 Along with El Mundo the daily La Discusi n also helped propagate the rumor that the protest by the PIC was actually a Haitia n led Afro standing fear of a Haitian style revolution that aimed to wrest the island from white control.
One notable edition featured wall to wall coverage of all things related to the province of Camagey, which neighbored the province of Oriente, where most of the revolt and subsequent repression would take place. A glittering celebration of the heroic province that had Quevedo Prez chose to feature his frien page.
Castillo de Gonzlez, a journalist and poet who had been expelled by the notorious Spanish military leader Valeriano Weyler during the War, had once been accused of sympathizing with th e independence movement and deported to Barcelona until the war ended in PAGE 13 13 like a soliloquy in which she waxes poetic about the homage that was paid to her in her native province and her attendance at the inaugurati on of a bronze statue to revolutionary leader, and fellow Camageyan, Ignacio Agramonte. The letter is indeed a celebration of Agramonte and everything Camageyan, but more broadly, if not more significantly, it is a tribute to Cuban nationhood, or patria grandeur, but ultimately a work of art emblematic of the virtue of patria : Y el arte, el arte Italiano, el ms excelso, ha hecho del bronce y de la piedra el altar del patriotismo Cu bano, la cspide de heroismo y de virtudes que todas las generaciones venideras, como la presente, deben alzar ojos arrobados y corazones enardecidos dispuestos lo ms bello: el sacrificio por la patria, y las virtudes, todo lo grande que en esa c spide se simboliza.
No, no he soado. La Hermosa realidad est all. As other publications continued to ruthlessly dehumanize a significant minority of its population Bohemia celebrated Cuban martyrs, cultural institutions and probed for deeper meanings of patria In consciously deciding to regularly afford space for female journalists, even high profile placements such as the front page, Quevedo Prez had been limited to males until the s.
PAGE 14 14 chronicle the unfo lding socio political turmoil that was being sensationalized and manipulated on the pages of the other publications. Under his stewardship of Bohemia construct and consolidate a sense of Cuban national identity was achieved in two ways. First, in helping to discover and promote distinctly Cuban artists Quevedo Prez demonstrated a nationalistic streak t cultural institutions through the contributions of native Cubans. Second, in intentionally using dational heroes such as Ignacio Agramonte, Quevedo Prez sought to give meaning to the notions of Cubanidad and patria to more actively involve the reader in the process of nation building while ment to strengthening the of Bohemia as an institution that could catalyze Cubans to engage in civic activism.
By breaking with rank and becoming possibly the only white journalist to refuse to give in to the hysteria of the press, Quevedo Prez enshrined his young publication in a veneer o f liberalism and independence which would guide it for almost fifty years. Moreover, at a time when the demand for news reached its peak lace profit over principle becomes emblematic of Bohemia established a tradition that would relentlessly steer the magazine in an independent direction and would make it one of the only, and even perhaps the only, publication that did not profit from its attachment to the government du jour By maintaining its independence, Bohemia revolutionary free press.
By maintaining its fidel ity to constructing and consolidating its sense of cubanidad it became popularly known as the bulwark of Cuban national identity, el baluarte de la identidad nacional Fidel Castro would later expound on that moniker and call Bohemi a, nuestro m s firme 15 In the process, it managed to sell more weekly copies, and enjoyed the highest circulation, of any publication in all Latin America between the late s and To understand the extent of and both Quevedos power in Cuba from it is necessary to go back, even at the risk of what might seem predictable, to Jos Mart.
But, the belief that journalism could serve as the vehicle in the creation of a nation that had been betrayed by two US military occupations, the Platt A mendment, and native oligarchs whose main concern was the distribution of the spoils of power among themselves, has deep and 14 Alejandro Leonardo Fernndez Caldern, P ginas en conflicto: debate racial en la prensa cubana , Havana: Editorial UH, , PAGE 16 16 inescapable roots in the journalism of the nineteenth century.
Cuban American historian Ada Ferrer argues that Mart and his genera tion of journalists essentially constructed a vision for Cuban nationhood through their writings, a factor that helped create a momentum for not only the imagination of a patria, but for the mobilization of Cubans that would take up arms for that Clearly they saw their writing as more than representation; they saw it also as weapon and war strategy, as a central part of the very process of insurgency they were seeking to 16 In imagining the first two wars of independence they could create a powerful impetus for a third.
As John M. Kirk notes, migr newspapers such as the and Raimundo Cuba y Am rica and Cuba y sus jueces presented Cubans wit h blueprints for nation broadened the revolutionary political power base at the same time. El Mensagero Semanal covered mostly Europeans but La Verdad La Revoluci n and Patria focused mostly on covering ed a role for every Cuban in the 18 While La Verdad lacked labor coverage, Patria was steeped in its coverage of the labor movement, further indicating the democratization of the independence movement.
For the original source see John M. PAGE 17 17 political change, was indelibly stitched in the minds of the first generation of the Cuban s and editors. The younger social, and economic crises that his generation would face. Broadly known as the Generation of , the cluded a wide spectrum of ideologically diverse 20 Louis A. In the process, the younger and financially astute Quevedo, would not only steer Bohemia in a new direction that would lead some Cubans to consider the publication a national institution, he would increase its circulation and readership dely circulated publication.
This study grew out of the conviction that the print press, and particularly the weekly magazine Bohemia constitutes a neglected source for Cuban history that remains virtually unexplored by scholars, who instead utilize Cuba n publications as sources of information but republican period is a rich field of study because it exemplifies the hopes and frustrations of the Cuban people, particularly in their capacity as an organized society vis vis the Cuban state as a political entity.
As one of the few independent news sources untainted by bribes or auto censorship, coverage put flesh on the political narrative of Cu republican history. Studying critical political coverage, especially considering its leading role in the struggle against the Machado and Batista dictatorships, offers a window onto the hopes and frustrations of the Cuban polity as interpret ed by the media vehicle that claimed to best represent them. Cuban journalist Pedro Yanes, who worked with Bohemia in the s and was a close friend of Quevedo, encapsulates the relationship between Bohemia and the Cuban Bohemia was more than an 21 This study aims to depict the evolution of Cuban journalism and how Bohemia intervened 21 Taped interview with Pedro Yanes by Richard Denis, Miami, FL, May 29, PAGE 19 19 reclaim Cuban sovereignty and agency through a neocolonial context takes on revolutionary overtones when his son was forced to steer the struggli ng publication through the challenges of dictatorship, corruption, violence, and economic hardship.
When the younger Quevedo took over Bohemia from his ailing father in , the magazine grew in radicalism to become a voice for a more politically, sociall y, and economically democratic Cuba. By the s and s son intensifies as it becomes the most radical voice in t he mainstream press to agitate for fervent opposition to all dictatorships and support for Latin American revolutionaries. A Look at the Literature on th e Cuban Republican Press While Cuban historiography is diversifying, and moving away from binary representations of pre revolutionary Cuba, th ere has not been an extensive study on the relationship between the press and politics in Cuba.
Ivette Villaescusa's recent work on the challenges of the Cuban press of the s frames the press' challenges within a binary ideological framework limited to a confrontation between a bourgeois and revolutionary press. PAGE 20 20 of life.
Her analysis also glosses over earlier efforts in promoting a nationalist culture and its significant role in shaping public discourse in a way that encouraged multi class participation, such as the multitude of contests and campaigns that were sponsored by the magazine that were open to all Cubans, and often inspired the wealthier classes to donate their time and money in helping poor Cubans. Dos siglos de periodismo en Cuba aims to analyze two centuries of Cuban journalism in one hundred and thirty pages.
Cuban ays of freedom of the press on the island in Prensa o de la ley agrarian hay que 24 Ruby Hart Phillips, a correspondent for the New York Times who lived in Cuba for close to thirty years, wrote two books that chronicled her time in Cuba, covering the fall of the rootedness in the island certainly clouded her perspective but it is her 23 Ibid.
PAGE 21 21 claim of stric t objectivity that most discredits her work. By painting the Cubans as a volatile and proud people who respect American democratic principles but resent American influence in social, and political life, Phillips relegates her analysis to a one dimensional caricature of a complex people living a history that requires a more nuanced interpretation. If anything, the myriadThe sentiment inherent in the title of her first book, Cuba: Island of Paradox has gone on to characterize journalistic des cription of Cuba as an island beset by contradiction.
In , Phillips arranged for the visit of a fellow Times writer who was then preparing to engage directly with the nascent armed insurrection in the Sierra Maestra mountains of eastern Cuba. Herbert Matthews, perhaps the most famous journalist to cover Cuba, has received outsized attention because he was the first journalist to visit Fidel Castro in his mountain hideout. He also catapulted the rebel leader and indeed the whole island of Cuba onto the American consciousness. While the Cuban media, particularly publications like Bohemia in the mainstream press, and clandestine newspapers played a greater role in tapping into the Cuban consciousness and concluding that Castro and his movement were perhaps the best and only his pioneering feat.
It is i mpossible to deny the impact the first Matthews interview had in introducing the larger than life personality of Castro t o many Americans, but there were other notable journalists, particularly Jules Dubois and Andrew St. George, who spent longer periods i n Cuba and delved deeper into the nuances of the civil war.
G eorge and in doing so from a somewhat objective point of view. There were also several clandestine publications that had a significant impact on the 26 of July Movement. For the Spanish version run in Bohemia Bohemia March 3, , sup. PAGE 23 23 St. George played significant roles in the portrayal of Castro and his rebels as freedom fighters, am media, especially Bohemia and the daily newspaper Prensa Libre as well as the clandestine publications in legitimating and even ennobling the cause of the opposition, especially with respect to ebels. One of the first English language studies to specifically deal Cuban Revolution.
The Selling of Fidel Castro: The Media and the Cuban Revolution edited by William Ratliff, features a n important chapter by historian Carlos Ripoll that was the most extensive treatment yet of the press from in Cuba. PAGE 24 24 immoral regime that brought Batista down although there was plenty of that dissatisfaction. It was, in fact, the press that, notwithstanding the punishment it received, gradually undermined the dictatorship by denouncing its illegal claim to power and its abuses at ev ery opportunity.
Beginning with the coup, Ripoll covers militant entire people to achieve excellence within a framework of democratic legality and mutual 29 Ripoll then chronicles the various articles and editorials lambasting the regime that in former constitutional norms 30 Public protests continued, however and even though civil rights were suspended off and on for the next year the press, especially Bohemia did not relent in its attacks against Batista.
Ratliff, New Brunswick: Transaction, Inc. PAGE 25 25 news but civil rights were immediately suspended. The government Ripoll calls Batista an inept dictator did not fully enforce censorship a nd Bohemia 32 he was constitu strongman. He constantly strove to distinguish himself from seemingly more ruthless dictators uspend and then reinstate constitutional guarantees, and granted amnesty to political prisoners, most notably, and to his everlasting chagrin, Fidel and Raul Castro in May of The following first chapter will provide a broad view of the relationship b print media and the various political currents on the island throughout its history, with a focus on the Republican period The second chapter will examine the socio political context in which Bohemia transitioned from its early phase as a provider of cultural and literary content otion of what the Republic should be was reflected in the myriad causes and campaigns engaged on its behalf.
It was framed by an ideological evolution that mirrored the political and s ocial upheaval of the island. The third chapter will examine how this transformation was reflected in editorial line with Editorials provide a pub lic forum for the dissemination of ideas and political issues ripe for discussion and debate. Thus, an analysis of Bohemia editorials on key political events of the 32 Ibid.
PAGE 26 26 histo ric role as the critical voice in the Cuban press in his efforts to shape public and political discourses. These editorials also help shed light on the confrontation between the press and censorship lations of press freedoms. Papel Peridico printed the official communications of the colonial bureaucracy, pre censored news from Europ e, and so me advertisements. It was an auspicious time for Cuba to begin printing a newspaper: the island would soon become awash in an era of prosperity predicated on the massive importation of African slaves into Havana, the demise of Saint Domingue as th e communication between Spain and her colonies due to the war with France.
PAGE 29 29 creation, cultivation and flourishing of a free, socially engaged press lay at the foundation of the concept of Cuban nationhood from the Cuban government under Fid el Castro. These literary possibilities, Larry Jensen vices of Cuban societal customs in a style known as costumbrismo 11 The first costumbrista essay to appear in the press appeared in a eidtion of Papel Periodico and focused on gambling, underscoring s traditional concern with individual and social morality.
Costumbrista essays in Papel Periodico criollo interests and heralded a change of Cuban consciousness; a fundamental shift in the way Cubans thought about themselves. Perez notes, cultural forms such as costumbrismo reflected a developing sense of identity and criollo awareness of their differences with peninsulares heightened a consciousness of community between criollos onality on the eve of the 10 Lillian Guerra, Visions of Power: Revolution, Redemption, and Resistance, Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina, , 11 Jensen, Children of Colonial Despotism 9.
The free press legislation that emanated out of Spain in late introduced Cubans to boasted ten newspapers : two dailies, one triweekly, and seven weeklies. A document with detailed notes from the gathering proclaimed: Congregados todos los periodistas de La Habana en lugar seguro, donde libres de los ignorantes, de los partidarios de la tira nia y de los aduladores sempiternos de los dspotas pudiesen tratr de reformas de abusos y de proponer los medios convenientes para 18 14 Ibid.
Its format was pleasant gossip, Larry Jensen writes, but the 19 It was a stylistic choice that would later be emulated by Raimundo Cabrera in his groundbreaking Cuba y sus jueces Constitutional freedoms notwithstanding, the Cuban press remain somewhat sudued in its criticism of the colonial system and its offcials. With the restoration, the press was once again muzzled and subject to pre c ensorship. Varela left Spain and settled in Philadelphia where he published El Habanero under his own name. Colonial repression of seemingly seditious exile publications like El Habanero had its limits however.
Although ninety two copies of its second edi tion were confiscated in Matanzas, many more circulated undetected, much to the consternation of Captain General Vives, who worried that young educated Cubans were being ind 20 The newspaper was, for the most part, a study of pol itical unrest and oppression that analyzed how to correct the unbearable conditions in mid s colonial Cuba. The Americas 20, no.
PAGE 32 32 The circulation of El Habanero underscored the consequences that exile newspapers such as El Habanero would have on Cuba and the formation of a collective Cuban consciousness. Although only seven issues were published in two years, El Habanero would help shape the contours of revolutionary thought that would mold Cubans such as Jose Maria de Mendive, whos e pupil Jos Mart would take on the cause of independence.
In the absence of an accountable colonial power that woul d periodically tighten the screws of repression on a criollo population that was beginning to view itself as a nation, Cubans began to view the press as an institution to which they could turn to; one that legitimated their grievances and sought to constru potential far reaching power of the press and provided a valuable symbol of the press as a fourth power: a fourth branch of government that British politician Edmund Burke called when describin El Habanero also unleashed the power of a nascent migr press that would, as Louis A.
Perez argues, contribute to the consciousness of nationality by creating open fields of excha nge and expanding the modes of communication to produce a more unified and informed constituency. PAGE 33 33 Manuel Moreno Fraginals notes that in the decade b etween and Cubans criollo elites led these developments through their membership in the Sociedad Economica with founded o Bimestre Cubana ; The journal, which can be considered the precursor to the magazines of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries bemoaned the cultural lag suffered in the colony and aimed at the revolutionary task of serving as a Cuban literary organ with a distinctly Cuban voice.
These publications, which has given much impetus to and served as a great incentive for other nations, are, with few exceptions, unknown among us. From Sartorius, Ever Faithful These writers voiced their hopes d political autonomy from Spain in the face of government repression. The magazine stopped printing in as a protest to the deportation of Saco, its director, who was exiled due to his political opinions, especially his hostility toward the slave trade 28 Although not always, the Sociedad Economica adhered to the norms of acceptable public discourse established by colonial officials even if those norms restricted the periodical press and 29 The primary concern for colonial authorities remained silencing news of antocolonial or revolutionary movements.
Jensen, Children of Colonial Despotism PAGE 35 35 government. Because of the liberalization of colonial policies in the s, spac es for these types 33 Cabrera wrote and published the book in a mere six weeks. In four months, three editions had been published and thousands of copies were sent to population centers in the interior of th e country as well as in Key West and Tampa. The Spanish occupational forces reported confiscating copies from insurgent camps in , the first year of the independence war.
The origins of the noti on of journalism as an effective nation building tool stem back to hundred clubs, was effectively stitched together by Patria and other newspapers that effectively ca talyzed Cubans around the need for independence from Spain. The contributions of Mart and journalists such as Juan Gualberto Gmez and Enrique Jos Varona proved indispensable in shaping the foundational discourse that guided the island in its transition from colony to republic to revolution.
As Ada Ferrer notes in the last two decades of the century, Havana experienced a minor publishing boom as over "five hundred magazines, newspapers, and other serial public a tions appeared in the city in this period. PAGE 36 36 movement, which was then coalescing around the notion of an independent Cuban nation. In fact, that these editors used their journalistic power to shape their respective, and often competing, visions of nation.
Patria, reverente y atribulada, dedicar todo su nmero prximo a glorificar al patriota, a enaltecer el inmortal. PAGE 37 37 legacy after his death. The revolutionary leaders of the 98 War well understood the critical role the p ress played in both spreading their ideas and goals and in galvanizing Cubans to their cause. In an letter to revolutionary journalist Enrique Trujillo, Generalissimo Maximo Gomez e can accomplish 42 Indeed, the press was instrumental in contributing to a unified and informed constituency and in the process of creating open fields of exchange and expanding the modes of communication it became an important conduit of competi ng versions of nationhood.
These advancements helped reduce production costs and increased circulation, pro viding larger audiences for Cuban migr newspapers such as Patria 44 Publications like Patria affected the character of ident ity by using the same methods to create nation and shape the content of nationality, a condition that led to the development of a powerful migr press.
Prez Jr. On Becoming Cuban 44 PAGE 38 38 46 The demand for freedom of the press in Cuba, as in other countries, became a transformative impulse that created, for the first time, something like a public space, where Cubans could exchange ideas and assert the right to be kept informed. Indeed, as Louis A. Perez shows, the discursive process itself often functioned as a means of mobilization. A crucial element that often determined the lens by which Cubans negotiated their vision 50 of nationhood was undoubtedly race.
The racial question, along with the type of society an independent Cuban state should have, were core elements that framed separatist discourse in the late nineteenth century. Blacks joined the political debates in efforts to enhance their political, 46 Smorkaloff, Readers and Writers in Cub a PAGE 39 39 social, and economic participation. Scott argues that mutual aid societies, known as Sociedades de la Raza de Color, increased their salience as the main form of association for black Cubans by the s. He did this by featuring articles that highlighted the fundamen tal role blacks had played in both the economic prosperity of the island and in the independence war and abolition.
See Rebecca J. PAGE 40 40 with black Cubans in the nineteenth century because despite low literacy rates, Cubans were privy to traditions of liste ning to newspapers and other texts read aloud in spaces such as cigar factories, rural estates, and the meetng halls of clubs and associations. Famed Cuban anthropologist Fernando Ortiz recounted the origin of the custom in when, on the initiative of the workers, the custom was permanentl y established in a cigar factory in Bejucal. In late , cigar worker Saturnino Martinez would aunch the first labor newspaper La Aurora a weekly that circulated primarily among cigar workers and exposed the bad working conditions of some tobacco factories.
Knopf, , PAGE 41 41 industry. Lector turned journalists Martin Mora Delgado a nd Rafael Serra y Montalvo highlight former lector and journalist rose to himself become a politician. Mora, who authored the Mora Amendment introduced at the beginning of this work, would become the first black president of the Senate, and eschewed the need for political mobilization based on race and embraced transracial nationalism.
While most literates tended to live in urban areas, there existed a culture o f literacy among semi countryside. Marial Iglesias Utset illustrates the case of a former slave who was taught to read by the mistress of the house and during the first US occupatio n serves as a translator of sorts to her illiterate fellow villagers, who gather outside her house to listen to and discuss the 62 Ibid.
PAGE 42 42 links political de liberations occurring on a national level, as synthesized in the newspaper 65 Many semiliterate and illiterate Cubans therefore were also aware of unfolding political events and could assign their own meaning to such events.
Semi literates were often attracted to and participated in the culture of literacy through the sale of publications that they not only could afford, but that often articulated their own working class concerns. Robe penny press on the formation of working class consciousness in the early twentieth century illustrates how this type of media effectively reached its target audience through a combination of eye catching graphics, acerbic political and social critique and a wicked sense of humor. As literacy expanded to more working class Cubans, a market for the consumption of cheap novels with lurid titles and images such as La Cigarrera and Memorias de un Teniente Mahadista appealed to working class Cubans because they often portrayed the upward mobilization of its protagonists.
These novels represented a sort of Cuban counterpart to the Mexican penny press and engaged semilite rate and poor Cubans in an ever expanding culture of literacy that would have repercussions in the content and appeal of future publications such as Bohemia and in the potential for the further politicization and mobilization of Cubans. Throughout the cou rse of two hundred years, Cuban journalists have alternatively 65 Iglesias Utset, A Cultu ral History PAGE 43 43 struggled under colonial governments and post colonial dictatorships, enjoying brief periods of press freedoms.
One of those periods was the early republic when a form of oligarchic democracy best characterized Cuba's political system. As Elizabeth Fox argues, an autonomous cultural and literary tradition in Latin America influenced the early years of development of print media. Started in in colonial times, El Figaro itself was modeled on the weekly French magazine known for the quality of its graphic illustrations and rich artistic content drawn from fin de sicle Paris. Its groundbreaking coverage of events such as the end of the first US occupation, the revolution aimed to oust President Tomas Estrada Palma and the election that Cubans hoped would usher in a new sovereign era, was framed by images such as the raising of the 67 Elizabeth Fox Media and Politics in Latin America : The Struggle for Demo cracy London: Sage Publications, , PAGE 44 44 Cuban flag in El Figaro al so strove to give meaning to historic events in the not so distant past, such as the Ten Years War, the nature of the Spanish colonial regime, and the death and legacy of independence hero Antonio Maceo.
It was easy to see traces of resplendent images of the election candidates in coverage of the election. Intimate portraits and stories of political candidates in El Figar o would be copied in Bohemia for years; a stylistic approach to decades of the Republic as serted the illegitimacy of Platttismo and stoked the currents of nationalism that would only grow stronger. Bohemia would also go on to emulate the long features El Figaro would run on anniversaries such as the death of foundational heroes and martyrs such as Mart and Maceo; stories that sought to interpret their legacies for new generations of Cubans.
The printing of primary sources such as the 71 Ibid. Editions of El Figaro from the late s are in Miami, Florida. PAGE 45 45 alleged suicide note, as well as photographs, documents and manifestos involved the reader in nation with a proud historical past. Robert C. Nathan notes how images of the Maceo Gmez union served to represent ra cial unity and to obscure or co 73 White Cubans edited historical past in mainstre am publications by proudly adhering to Bohemia eath, 74 But the printing of primary sources and documents in magazines like El Figaro and Bohemia presented Cuban readers with the opportunity to edit the past for them selves.
The proliferation of alternative representations of Maceo, and the Maceo Gmez union in the s and s are a a testament to the empowering potential of these unedited documents and sources to shape and frame Cubans perception of their history and of themselves. No less influential on Cuba y Am rica which in the s had covered high society events that served as veritable fundraisers for the coming war for independence. PAGE 46 46 The success of the magazine format in publications like El Figaro and Cuba y Am rica likely inspired the proliferation of magazi nes in the s that featured glossy photographs, the winded essays on meanings of patria The latest technological innovations, such as the machine that would allow color printing known as la tricom a we re pioneered in Latin America by Bohemia in and would revolutionize magazine printing.
Liam Alexander Premium Pictures, Photos, & Images - Getty Images
That year also witnessed the beginning of the sugar boom when Cuba became ar I. Sugar prices continued to rise and Cuba enjoyed a time of unprecedented prosperity known as the Dance of the Millions A surge of newspapers and magazines, both general interest and more specific, hit newsstands. By the early s Havan a alone enjoyed a plethora of publications that included fourteen dailies of a general or political character; approximately seven dedicated to covering commercial or merchant information; fourteen that focused on various immigrant communities that lived i n Havana; and around fifteen so called little political periodicals known as periodiquitos polticos 76 What makes this amount of news publications even more impressive is gazines were those of a general interest, known as variedades which included El Figaro and Bohemia and would be joined in by the new venture of a young talented illustrator and characiturist named Conrado W.
The magazine Social 3; aimed to reach what was then an expanding haute boirgeiosie class; a group Massaguer parodied in his famous caricatures. That same year, the Institute of Graphic Arts opened in Havana, and it was there in that Social would make history b 76 Amaya, , PAGE 47 47 77 The success of Social prompted the launching of Carte les , a magazine likely modeled on Bohemia which Massaguer and his brother Oscar hoped would reach a broader and less elitist audience.
As early as the newspaper La pol tica c mica debuted the character of Liborio, the quintessential Cuban country bumpkin, or guajiro that was emblematic of the ideologically ambivalent Cuban of the first two decades of the Republic. As Louis Prez notes, the emergence of a Cuban entrepreneurial class served to give shape to a new politica l constituency that was increasingly susceptible to the appeal of economic nationalism 81 77 Smorkoloff, Readers an d Writers in Cuba PAGE 48 48 That tension would soon erupt into a full scale confrontation between the pre regime.
It would also irrevocably alter the content of many of these magazines to include biting social commentary. A budding nationalist sentiment at home, coupled with International events such as the Mexican Revolution of and the R ussian Revolution of , combined to exacerbate tensions between Cubans and the state, and perhaps more importantly, tacitly legitimated the use of civil disobedience, and even violence, as a mechanism for effecting revolutionary change.
Both revolutions provided ideological currents that permeated Cuban cultural life and would form the basis of a new sense of Cuban nationalism, predicated on notions of populism, social justice, and anti imperialism. The shock waves from the Mexican revolution would reve rbate in the Cuban press. Many Mexican journalists chose to exile themselves in Cuba and contributed aspects of their culture and technological knowledge that envigorated Cuban journalism. Although Longoria was born in Spain, his made his career as a journalist in Mexico and I classify him as Mexican.
PAGE 49 49 continued publish ing articles ounder the pseudonym of Javier de Silva, the name of a maternal relative. Consequently, this climate of non conformity, a nd even revolution, presaged the formation of a second republican generation of Cubans who instinctively challenged, and profoundly criticized state structures and injustices; a revolution driven by the press, which was beginning its republican phase as a fourth power of government. The abundance of publications, and starting in the radio, effectively empowered the Cuban citizenry and gave them a voice in criticizing the state and discursive power to elaborate on their own visions of what that state should look like and w hom it should serve.
It was no accident, therefore, that the opening salvo of the Cuban cultural war, fired by the second republican generation, was shaped by a young group of Cubans strongly influenced by the journalistic discourse of magazines such as So cial whose offices served as meeting places for weekly salons for men like Ruben Martinez Villena, Jorge Manach, Felix Lizaso, Juan Marinello, and Francisco Ichaso to name only a few. I n these men, along with seven others participated in an unpreced ented affront to the political elites; a scene that played out in the minister of justice Erasmo Regueriferos Boudet stood up to present an award to Uruguayan 85 Ibid.
PAGE 50 50 writer Paul ina Luisi, Martinez Villena yelled out a denunciation of the Zayas government and proceeded to walk out of the building with twelve others in a shocking event that became known as La Protesta de los Trece 87 The protest signified the eruption of popular di scontent with government corruption, malfeasance, and lack of accountability to the Cuban citizenry.
As the economic windfall of the Dance of the Millions receded and a crisis within the University of est not only poltical corruption, but also American economic imperialism and lack of economic diversification, social and racial inequalities, and the continued imposition of the Platt Amendment and its corrosive effect on Cuban national sovereignty. This organization laid out a set of concrete objectives that were fundamentally based on discursive responses to governmental abuses of power; a framework that would revolutionize public discourse and effectively shift the journalisti c objectives of many Cuban publications.
El grupo Minorista would go on to launch its own mouthpiece, Revista de Avance Liter ary magazines became not only spaces where Cubans could read about the latest exciting trends in literature, poetry, music, architecture, sculpture and other arts, they became the 87 Pappademos, Black Political Activism The influence of Marxist philosophy, so crucial to the last successfu l revolution in Russia, made its way into the press, where the notion of a class system assumed greater significance and increasingly shaped journalistic discourse.
Conscious of the crucial role that a collective sense nat ional identity could play in forging a more democratic and socially just nation, Maach thundered his way into the Cuban consciousness with seminal essays that explored how and why the ills of the first Cuban republic relegated the island to a neocolonial 89 Rosario Rexach, Los Ensayistas de Avance: Francisco Ichaso New York: Centro Virtual Cervantes , Journalism would provide the vehicle from which to inform the Cuban citizenry and shape public opinion.
By however, Machado had altered the constitution in order to s turn toward dictatorship. Lisandro Otero and Sergio Carb led the way in their denunciations of the Machado Revista de Avance would shape journalistic discourse in a way that would help pave the way for the social to incite controversy through his journalistic writings produced the twofold consequence of amplifying his message to a broader audience and heightening his influence across that wider 92 Ibid.
PAGE 53 53 spectrum of Cubans. Just as the econ omic crash rattled global markets and threw capitalism into its deepest crisis, the fourth power of the state became even more influential as it promised to give voice to, and perhaps even validate, popular dissatisfaction with government. Cuban journalist s and editors suddenly found themselves endowed with a new set of responsibilities and obligations that were fraught with new burdens as well. In his pioneering work, Edel Sarmiento Lima documents the press' efforts to report on period examines the relationship in a specific historic moment.
He also examines its relation to social and political actors including political elites, the impact of technology on its evolution and development, and the characteristics of its journalistic discourse as well as the interest in the life and works of writers, columnists and reporters. Machado thus earns the dubious distinction of being the first president of the Republic to regularly use wholesale intimidation and repression to muzzle the press and jail those journalists 95 Jorg Jorge Ma ach : Homenaje de la Naci n Cubana Rio Piedras: Editorial San Juan, , PAGE 54 54 stringent than that applied by the colonial adminis tration, which would immediately shut down any publication that chose to undermine his regime by using the old method of running a blank column, the blank page over an article suppressed by the censors.
The editor of the newspaper El D a was especially taboo in s Cu ba. Thugs soon murdered Andre as he was leaving his house. As early as the s however, journalists had grown in stature to the point that their influence permeated into political circles, a fact that perhaps made Machado all the more anxious the US imposed presidency of Carlos Manuel de Cspedes was overthrown by a coalition of military sergeants and university students who then formed a commission of five men, known as la pentarchia the pentarchy , to Among those in la pentarchia was Carb, an appointment that underscores the interdependence that had developed between the press and politics.
Only days after Machado fled the country and days before he would assume his position within the gov erning pentarchy, Carb wrote the foreword to a book that would victims, a task Bohemia itself would take on twenty five years later wit the 97 Smorkaloff, Readers and Writers in Cub a PAGE 55 55 99 Written and compiled by Carlos Peraza, Machado: Cr menes y Horrores de un R gimen f El D Andre, door thus giving the snipers across the time ample time to aim and shoot their target dead, which they did shamelessly, and as Peraza notes coward ly.
The book also details how the revolutionary movement of the early s formed but its im portance lies in its role as a modern Latin American dictatorships, replete with some of the first references to victims as would achieve special notoriety with the Argentine and Chilean dictatorships of the s and s. PAGE 56 56 The politicization of the working class by the s, in fact, would enable the explosive growth of a publication like Bohemia in the s and s, when the magazine extended its reach not only across the island but across Latin America by amplifying its coverage of regional political events, which were increasingly subject to the whims of dictatorial governments.
In a country of ro ughly six million inhabitants, there existed between sixty and seventy newspapers. By , even ignoring the magazines and weekly newspapers published in Havana alone not to mention the bradcasting competitors for advertising and circulation the twenty one daily newspapers constituted a highly competitive market among themselves. Founded in , the Diario de la Marina passed over to the Rivero family when Nicols Rivero ass umed its direction in PAGE 57 57 se it incorporated tactics such as the supplanting of front page advertising by news, and the notion of a larger extended Sunday edition, by the s it was controlled by the powerful Barletta family, which tended to sympathize with Batista.
Originally st arted in Diario de la Marina offices in , the daily Informacin went on to become the largest newspaper in terms of page length. By the early s its daily editions were between 36 and 48 pages and on Sundays the paper was between 90 and pages in Santiago Claret was an iron fours at the ich proclaimed to defend the principles of liberty and democracy as Carb has conceived them throughout his journalistic career.
Started in shortly after the establishment of democracy vis the various political tendencies, although it exhibited a left of center ideological bent. Although many of the publications in this crowded field were in often in the pocket of the government du jour it is Gaston Baquero, Ensayos selectos Madrid: Verbum, , PAGE 58 58 re number of radio stations in the country was ; the number of newspapers w as also high, and Vidaillet notes, in addition to press censorship, Batista also restricted the domesti c circulation of The New York Times and The Miami Herald tactics that aimed both to muzzle criticism and de a regime that was as corrupt as it was tone deaf to the calls for an acceptable solution that would return Cuba t o a de jure government.
Even the well respected daily El Mundo receieved a monthly check for a thousand pesos directly from the Presidential Palace. It is to the story of the latter public ation and how it came to identify itself as a publication in the service of the Cuban nation that this work now turns. Quevedo Prez intended to emulate the formula for edition. An inveterate opera lover, Quevedo Pe rez named his new magazine after his La Boheme Financial troubles hounded Quevedo Perez however and after only a handful of issues, the magazine folded and he returned to El Figaro where he was let go after being denied his request of a five day leave to attend to the birth of his first child, Miguel Angel Quevedo de la Lastra.